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Non-Equilibrium Relations for Bounded Rational Decision-Making in Changing Environments

Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, Stuttgart 70569, Germany
Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tübingen 72076, Germany
3, Cambridge CB2 1LA, UK
4th Institute for Theoretical Physics, Universität Stuttgart, Stuttgart 70569, Germany
Institute of Neural Information Processing, Universität Ulm, Ulm 89081, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Entropy 2018, 20(1), 1;
Received: 30 July 2017 / Revised: 17 December 2017 / Accepted: 18 December 2017 / Published: 21 December 2017
Living organisms from single cells to humans need to adapt continuously to respond to changes in their environment. The process of behavioural adaptation can be thought of as improving decision-making performance according to some utility function. Here, we consider an abstract model of organisms as decision-makers with limited information-processing resources that trade off between maximization of utility and computational costs measured by a relative entropy, in a similar fashion to thermodynamic systems undergoing isothermal transformations. Such systems minimize the free energy to reach equilibrium states that balance internal energy and entropic cost. When there is a fast change in the environment, these systems evolve in a non-equilibrium fashion because they are unable to follow the path of equilibrium distributions. Here, we apply concepts from non-equilibrium thermodynamics to characterize decision-makers that adapt to changing environments under the assumption that the temporal evolution of the utility function is externally driven and does not depend on the decision-maker’s action. This allows one to quantify performance loss due to imperfect adaptation in a general manner and, additionally, to find relations for decision-making similar to Crooks’ fluctuation theorem and Jarzynski’s equality. We provide simulations of several exemplary decision and inference problems in the discrete and continuous domains to illustrate the new relations. View Full-Text
Keywords: free energy; bounded rationality; anticipation; adaptation free energy; bounded rationality; anticipation; adaptation
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Grau-Moya, J.; Krüger, M.; Braun, D.A. Non-Equilibrium Relations for Bounded Rational Decision-Making in Changing Environments. Entropy 2018, 20, 1.

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