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Entropy 2013, 15(8), 3170-3185;

A Maximum Entropy-Based Chaotic Time-Variant Fragile Watermarking Scheme for Image Tampering Detection

Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Taichung University of Science and Technology, Taichung 404, Taiwan
Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chin-Yi University of Technology, Taichung 41170, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 April 2013 / Revised: 27 July 2013 / Accepted: 29 July 2013 / Published: 5 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamical Systems)
PDF [1932 KB, uploaded 24 February 2015]


The fragile watermarking technique is used to protect intellectual property rights while also providing security and rigorous protection. In order to protect the copyright of the creators, it can be implanted in some representative text or totem. Because all of the media on the Internet are digital, protection has become a critical issue, and determining how to use digital watermarks to protect digital media is thus the topic of our research. This paper uses the Logistic map with parameter u = 4 to generate chaotic dynamic behavior with the maximum entropy 1. This approach increases the security and rigor of the protection. The main research target of information hiding is determining how to hide confidential data so that the naked eye cannot see the difference. Next, we introduce one method of information hiding. Generally speaking, if the image only goes through Arnold’s cat map and the Logistic map, it seems to lack sufficient security. Therefore, our emphasis is on controlling Arnold’s cat map and the initial value of the chaos system to undergo small changes and generate different chaos sequences. Thus, the current time is used to not only make encryption more stringent but also to enhance the security of the digital media.
Keywords: encrypt; watermark; logistic map; Arnold’s cat map encrypt; watermark; logistic map; Arnold’s cat map
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Chen, Y.-L.; Yau, H.-T.; Yang, G.-J. A Maximum Entropy-Based Chaotic Time-Variant Fragile Watermarking Scheme for Image Tampering Detection. Entropy 2013, 15, 3170-3185.

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