In the realm of finite time thermodynamics, two issues are of essential importance—one is to determine the extremum of objective function and study the interrelation of different objective functions, the other is to determine the optimal thermodynamic process for given optimization objectives [

1,

2,

3,

4,

5,

6,

7,

8,

9,

10,

11,

12,

13,

14,

15,

16]. Curzon and Ahlborn [

17] demonstrated that the efficiency at maximum power point is

${\eta}_{CA}=1-\sqrt{{T}_{L}/{T}_{H}}$ for an endoreversible Carnot heat engine operating between two constant temperature reservoirs with Newtonian heat transfer law [

q ∝ Δ(

T)]. Procaccia and Ross [

18] proved that in all acceptable cycles, an endoreversible Carnot cycle with larger compression ratio can produce maximum power,

i.e., the Curzon-Ahlborn cycle [

17] is the optimal configuration with only First and Second Law constraints. Ondrechen

et al. [

19] studied the optimal cycle configuration of an endoreversible heat engine with a finite thermal capacity reservoir and Newtonian heat transfer law for maximum work output. Chen

et al. [

20] investigated effects of heat leakage on the optimal cycle configuration of a heat engine with a finite thermal capacity reservoir and Newtonian heat transfer law for maximum work output. Linetskii and Tsirlin [

21], and Andresen and Gordon [

22] considered the minimum entropy generation of heat transfer process with Newtonian heat transfer law in heat exchanger. Based on reference [

22], Badescu [

23] optimized the heat transfer process with Newtonian heat transfer law for minimum lost available work by choosing the hot bath side as referee environment. Xia

et al. [

24] optimized the heat transfer process with Newtonian heat transfer law in heat exchanger for entransy dissipation minimization. Nevertheless, generally, heat transfer does not necessarily obey Newtonian heat transfer law, and it may follow other laws. Heat transfer laws not only influence the performance of given thermodynamic processes [

25,

26,

27,

28,

29], but also influence the optimal configurations of thermodynamic processes for given optimization objectives. Yan

et al. [

30] investigated the optimal cycle configuration of an endoreversible heat engine with a finite thermal capacity reservoir and the linear phenomenological heat transfer law [

q ∝ Δ(

T^{−1})] for maximum work output. Chen

et al. [

31] investigated effects of heat leakage on the optimal cycle configuration of a heat engine with a finite thermal capacity reservoir and the linear phenomenological heat transfer law for maximum work output. Some studies on the optimal configuration of variable- temperature heat reservoir heat engine for maximum power output were also performed, with the generalized radiative heat transfer law [

q ∝ Δ(

T^{n})] [

32], generalized convective heat transfer law [

q ∝ (Δ

T)

^{m}] [

33], mixed heat resistance [

34], and generalized heat transfer law [

q ∝ (Δ(

T^{n}))

^{m}] [

35], respectively. Andresen and Gordon [

36] and Badescu [

37] further optimized a class of heat transfer processes, with generalized radiative heat transfer law for minimum entropy generation [

36] and minimum lost available work [

37], respectively. Based on the generalized heat transfer law [

q ∝ (Δ(

T^{n}))

^{m}], Chen

et al. [

38] and Xia

et al. [

39] derived the optimal temperature configurations of heat transfer processes for minimum entropy generation [

38] and minimum lost available work [

39]. Xia

et al. [

40] further investigated the minimum entransy dissipation of heat transfer processes with the generalized radiative heat transfer law.

In the realm of thermodynamics, a thermodynamic system can be described by extensive variables (such as mass, volume, internal energy, and entropy) and intensive variables (such as temperature, and pressure); and heat flux is generated by temperature difference. Similarly, in the realm of economics, variables can also be classified into extensive ones (such as labor, capital, and good) and intensive ones (such as price); moreover, commodity flow is generated by price difference. The striking resemblance of thermodynamics and economics has drawn much attention [

2,

4,

6,

7,

10,

41,

42,

43,

44,

45,

46,

47,

48,

49]. Rozonoer [

41,

42,

43] studied the analogies between reversible thermodynamics and economics in detail, and proposed the term “resource economics” for the analysis of economic system using a thermodynamic approach. Based on the analogies between economics and thermodynamics, Saslow [

45] developed economic analogies to the free energy, Maxwell relations, and the Gibbs-Duhem relationship. Salamon

et al. [

46], Berry

et al. [

4], Tsirlin [

7,

10,

14], and Mironova

et al. [

6] addressed the research lines and methods of finite-time thermodynamics into economic analyses. They considered the finite rate commodity flow, and investigated the minimal expenses of resource exchange processes with linear commodity transfer law [

n ∝ Δ(

P)] and maximal profit rates of constant flow and reciprocal commercial engines (which are analogous to constant flow and reciprocal heat engines operating between infinite heat reservoirs in thermodynamics). De Vos [

48,

49,

50] investigated the analogies among endoreversible heat engines, chemical engines and commercial engines. Based on a generalized commodity transfer law [

n ∝ Δ(

P^{m})], where the exponent

m is closely related to the price elasticity of supply and demand, De Vos [

49,

50] further investigated the optimal performances of endoreversible commercial engines. Martinas [

51] investigated the similarities and differences between irreversible thermodynamics and irreversible economics. Tsirlin [

52], Tsirlin

et al. [

53,

54,

55], and Amelkin

et al. [

56] established an analogy between the processes in microeconomics and irreversible thermodynamics, and defined a physical quality in economics that could be used to measure the irreversibility of commodity exchange processes,

i.e., capital dissipation, which is analogous to the physical quality of entropy generation in thermodynamics. Amelkin [

57] investigated limit performances of a class of resource exchange processes in complex open microeconomic systems including sequential structure and parallel structure. Tsirlin and Kazakov [

58] investigated the optimal cycle configuration of a commercial engine with a finite capacity economic subsystem and the linear transfer law for maximum profit.