There are many concepts related to explaining the term ‘quality’, some of these explanations connect the word ‘quality’ and the idea of accomplishing the thing in a perfect manner [1
], Others saw the meaning of quality as excellence or, as [2
] argued, quality can refer to achieving something with a high degree of good quality and good value. Quality is considered a reliable criterion, so that an achievement is distinguished from other achievements in the same environment and in the same field, and its privilege is to be completely free from any defect that may be a reason for criticism [3
According to [4
], an organization which focuses on delivering the best and most accurate service/product to its customers must adopt technologies that embrace its desires and help to reach its goal. Noted that playing on the level of quality has become a guaranteed weapon which can deliver the organization to the state that it looks for “excellence” and [5
], at the same time, deliver the needed service to clients with the best level of satisfaction, leaving it with high performance and a well-built customer base.
This target of organizations has led them to embrace the strategy and philosophy of Total Quality Management (TQM) as an approach to make sure that the service has the ability to meet customers’ expectations.
According to [6
] the technological developments and well-built technology infrastructure that organizations are adopting now have made individuals more aware of the concept of quality and service quality. The idea of awareness appeared within individuals whether they were employees in the organization or customers looking for the services that they look forward to. From that point, there appeared an undeniable interest in TQM based on the indications which proved that TQM has the ability to manipulate service, leading it to the level that both the organization and customers want.
However, argued that the organization may not succeed in achieving the satisfaction of its customers due to the relation between the level of the service and the price [7
]. They appeared both to be connected to the customers’ point of view regarding how much to pay for a certain level of service [7
] also added that TQM is a system that integrates all of the organization’s administrative, production and marketing systems and interacts through entire fields of activities and interests. Its implementation requires ongoing monitoring and constant developments within many activities and initiatives through the sustained approach that has the ability to empower the organization to deliver the service/product in the best way possible and through anticipating the best customer satisfaction.
] stated that since the TQM is based on a set of interrelated functions that are carried out in all departments of an organization based on their ability to deliver the aim of the entire system efficiently and permanently and with varied outcomes in each function, we find that sometimes the system objective can’t be achieved due to a defect in any one of the functions of the organization; this was the turning point and guided direction towards the study of total quality in marketing as one of the basic functions whose activities are based on meeting the requirements of customers and achieving their satisfaction at the same time.
Based on the above argument, the current study aimed to examine the influence of TQMk in increasing efficiency and effectiveness of e-marketing strategies within Jordanian telecommunication organizations (Zain, Umniah and Orange). The aim of this study was extracted from previous literature (e.g., [6
Based on what was mentioned earlier, the current study focused on answering the following set of questions:
What is the extent of applying TQMk within the telecommunication sector in Jordan?
What is the attitude of respondents towards applying TQMk in marketing strategies?
What is the influence of TQMk on e-marketing application and adoption within the telecommunication sector?
Do service quality, market orientation and the customer-focused approach positively influence e-marketing in the telecommunication sector?
From that point, the researcher was able to develop the following set of hypotheses:
Main Hypotheses:There is a significant positive impact of TQMk dimensions of e-marketing strategy within telecommunication organizations in Jordan.
Hypothesis 1 (H1).
Service quality has a positive impact on e-marketing strategy within telecommunication organizations in Jordan.
Hypothesis 2 (H2).
Market orientation has a positive impact on e-marketing strategy within telecommunication organizations in Jordan.
Hypothesis 3 (H3).
The customer-focused approach has a positive impact on e-marketing strategy within telecommunication organizations in Jordan.
In order to highlight the relationship in a clearer way, the following represented the study model:
As it can be seen from Figure 1
below, the researcher built the relationship based on the variables of TQMk which were retrieved from [6
]; variables were modified and formulated to suit the main aim of study; then, the influence of these variables was identified to formulate a relationship to the performance of e-marketing strategies within the telecommunication sector in Jordan.
2. Literature Review
The diversity of views on the subject of quality differs in their definition despite the growing interest in them and therefore, a comprehensive definition of quality must be set within any organization where the quality can be measured and applied to work. The idea of quality is recognized as the organization’s outcome of a service/product based on a high efficiency of differentiation and excellence. It is capable of meeting customers’ expectations or to provide a service and to find a status of excellence in them [9
Stated that quality was defined as an individual order based on the user preferences that the product or service demands, and the products that offer the highest satisfaction to these preferences are considered to be higher quality products [10
]. On the other hand [11
] define quality as the ability of a product/service to meet consumers’ expectations; it refers to customers’ payment for something that is beneficial and worthy.
The success of the Japanese organizations is due to their ability to build a reputation for the quality of their products, and this certainly requires the need to examine our organizations for the policies that followed and follow the entrances based on improving the quality of products to increase their competitiveness [12
] noted that there appeared worldwide attention on the necessity of quality which not only influences the satisfaction of a customer towards a certain service, but also influences the whole departments of the organization in terms of performance and excellence.
Saw that any human action cannot amount to absolute perfection [14
]. The actions of human beings, whether individual or collective, may be deficient and flawed to varying degrees, but the pursuit of a high level of perfection in work is a strategic objective in any area, although an institution suffers from some shortcomings and deficiencies. The supervisors should search for these aspects and investigate the methods of treatment with correct scientific methods.
However, noted that in order to improve the quality of the product [15
], new ways of managing the work are required. Management no longer just issues orders to employees, but they are required to think seriously, participate in the management and organization of work and strive to achieve a high degree of perfection and quality of work. As [16
] saw, the above was set forth to the dimensions and determinants of quality which can be mentioned as follows:
Performance: This dimension refers to the basic characteristics of a product or service, such as speed and competitiveness.
Reliability: This refers here to the consistency of performance, and there must be a degree of reliability and confidence in the performance of the product or service (non-repetition of faults and being ready according to demand).
Shelf life: This refers to the life of the product or service (duration or validity represented in mileage).
Special features: This dimension refers to additional characteristics of a product or service, such as safety, ease of use or high technology.
Compatibility: This dimension refers to the extent to which the product or service responds or how it corresponds to the expectations of the consumer, the correct performance at the first time and its impact on the effectiveness of the marketing process.
After-sales services: This dimension refers to the types of after-sales services, such as handling consumer complaints or ensuring consumer satisfaction, and it is usually used after the performance, reliability, compatibility and special characteristics in the judgment on the inherent product for use by the consumer, and it must be noted that the special dimensions of confidence and reliability in judging the service/product quality are of particular necessity in the frame of TQM, especially in the field of quality [17
The business environment is witnessing a series of varied technological changes which have led many countries and nations to adopt the system of markets which, in turn, has led to the state of foreign trade globalization. This has managed to embrace the two concepts of market competitiveness and customer satisfaction. In addition to this, globalization has opened the doors for trade in a way that appeared to be unlimited; all nations and organizations from different nationalities have seized the chance to be more global and widely spread, leading to an open communication state of technology; this, in turn, managed to focus more on the idea of quality in accordance with the global trading and international marketing that organizations began to adopt in accordance with the new technologies [18
Have argued that the marketing approach of the TQM principles focuses on attention to customer needs and desires [19
], service/product overall design and all the factors that may play a role in increasing the satisfaction of customers towards the service or product that they are paying for. On the other hand, saw that in order to gain the two most effective factors in its excellence [20
], which are customer satisfaction and high service quality, any organization must adopt different TQM within its marketing strategies that guarantees the best and most accurate results for marketing. Generally speaking, and according to [20
], there are four main characteristics for marketing aimed are global competition which are:
Focus on customer expectations and desires based on the lowest costs.
Monitor the supply chain of products in terms of stability.
Changes in technological, political and social aspects.
Predict client needs in future time periods.
2.3. TQMk Dimensions
The present markets are described by an extraordinary challenge between enterprises as an endeavor to address the issues and necessities of shoppers and fulfill them with the best service that enables them to keep up their situation in the fields in which they work. In this way, an organization that wants to endure and develop with excellence must embrace another way of thinking, dependent on conveying higher incentive to the objective shopper [21
2.3.1. Customer-Focused Approach
According to [22
], the point of all the work and endeavors is to cause important enhancements so as to give better merchandise and enterprises to the customer, particularly since clients are, as of now, not extremely tolerant as far as quality and poor administration and are eager to turn their bearing towards foundations that give better administration and higher quality. This implies that these associations must know that their yields are great from the client’s perspective [23
Noted that normally the client comes to an organization with a set of expectations that they request to be met [24
]. Those expectations might not be available within the organization which puts a lot of pressure on employees to be able to satisfy customers and meet their desires as, according to the clients’ own desires scale, clients normally come to the organization in defining the following set of expectations, according to [25
Failed expectation: The customer claims the service they got has not met their expectations, leading to a frustrated and angry client who is willing to find other ways to meet their desires from another source.
Met expectation: in this process, the desires of customers were met which reinforces their satisfaction and needs.
Exceeded expectation: the confidence within customers is increased due to the fact that the service exceeded what customers expected.
On the other hand, argued that the client builds their expectations on the basis of previous experiences with the organization and through the spoken word among people [26
]. The task of retaining existing customers is harder than attracting new customers. Customer orientation, by paying attention to customer needs, desires and expectations, is the true gateway to the success of the organization.
However, stated that the overall quality is based on the fact that the success of the organization’s activities depends [27
], to a large extent, on the availability of the needs and requirements of the customers and the attempt to implement their expectations. Customer satisfaction is the cornerstone and the solid foundation from which the ambitions of the establishment should be launched in the future. The comprehensive concept expands the customer circle to also include employees working within the enterprise and makes them an important and vital component of the customer group.
2.3.2. Market Orientation
As an institutional culture, the market orientation distinguishes the enterprise’s tendency to consistently deliver higher value to its customers. To create value for customers, it requires an enterprise-wide commitment to continue to gather information, coordinate customer needs, competitors’ capabilities and other important market agents and regulators. Market orientation is a joint sub-effort across departments within the organization, which in turn leads to superior organizational performance. The dimensions of market orientation are as follows, according to [28
Generate market information about customer needs and external environmental factors
Disseminate this information among organizational functions
Develop and implement response strategies for information
2.3.3. Service Quality
According to [29
], quality can be characterized as gathering the desires and necessities of a person from a service or an item given by a specific organization or firm, and it can be estimated by knowing the fulfillment of people with the administrations and items given and is accomplished by staying away from blunders, deformities and weaknesses. The idea of quality was especially identified with foundations extending from quality management, arrangement of various materials and assets (such as quality underway and warehousing activities), to quality in conveying items and administrations to buyers.
Argued that service quality means that the organization is aware of its customers’ preferences and is able to deliver the product or service based on what customers want [30
]; in addition to that, when saying that a certain organization enjoys a high level of service quality, it means that the organization is able to deliver the service in the best way possible from the first time. According to [31
], service quality is the state of the ability of a product or a service to reach the expectations and desires of customers; it is mainly the state whereby customers can find what they are looking for in the item.
2.4. Importance of TQMk
As a result, TQM is a process that is comprehensive in its nature and is more able to collect all the abilities within an organization and employ them for the benefit of the customer in order to increase their satisfaction and guarantee reaching a competitive advantage. What distinguishes TQM from other processes within the organization is the fact that it has a role in almost every department in the organization, and lately, it became a part of the marketing department in which the concept of TQMk was reached. In other words, TQMk is a group of total quality practices within the marketing scheme that increases the efficiency of marketing and makes sure that it is able to deliver the basic marketing characteristics to customers empirically in the field of electronic marketing [32
Stated that TQM is the gateway that can radically change the organizational culture within the enterprise and transform it from the traditional management style of the modern approach that serves to achieve high quality product or service [33
]. Hence, the necessity of TQM in marketing launches from the fact that TQM touches all departments within the organization and makes sure that all activities are being done within the accepted range of success, which in turn can lead to development and excellence in the entire organization. Also point out that the international quality system developed by ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is very important with organizations that have obtained this certificate in the supply of supplies and gradually find that organizations that have not been able to obtain this certificate are outside the market and outside the competition and will lose its customers systematically because the consumer has become aware that the goods and services that have won the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) are the best [34
], and the quality of it will be on demand and purchase.
Marketing is one of the most influential activities that is done by the organization. Basically, good marketing is the source for the organization’s income and is the first gate through which customers can be attracted [35
]. Among the recent types of marketing is electronic marketing, known as e-marketing, or it can also be referred to as digital marketing or network marketing. E-marketing is a strategy that is used in order to employ technology and the internet within the process of marketing, leading the way for more developed marketing strategies, plans and approaches [36
]. The main concept of e-marketing revolves around hanging the real market into the virtual one in order to reach as many customers as possible; this has opened the gates for international marketing around the world and increased the ability of organizations to reach a wider audience through involving the internet in marketing [37
The core idea of e-marketing revolves around a group of activities that are related to marketing but done online through the internet and its applications. The use of the internet in marketing proved its efficiency through its benefits which helped in attracting customers from different geographical areas regardless of distance and time zone. Over time, e-marketing has proved that it can be used as a main tool of marketing, specifically with the development of internet applications and programs which paved the way for more coherent and well-built marketing plans [18
2.6. Chances Presented by E-Marketing
The nature of e-marketing isn’t a way to invade individuals’ privacy. It is a good way to develop a good relationship with customers and attract potential customers based on internet applications that are under the control of the client.
The smart use of e-marketing can win the loyalty of customers.
E-marketing utilizes the reach for any item or product regardless of its place and different geographical place; it also helps the promotion of items and products to reach a wider range of audience.
E-marketing limits the monopoly and opens the chance for small and medium organizations to trade and market their items across a wider range.
E-marketing is known to be cost-effective as it is not as expensive as other conventional marketing strategies.
E-marketing has developed the idea of delivery as a person can order a certain product online and asked it to be delivered to their place without the need to move from one place to another.
2.7. Approaches to Develop TQMk to Support E-Marketing
There are many aspects that need to be strengthened to improve TQMk, including:
Quality must be realized by the consumer; the customer of quality must begin with the needs of the consumer and end with the perception of the consumer.
Quality must be reflected in all the activities of the institution and not only in its products, and therefore, quality is required in advertising, delivery, after-sales service, marketing research, etc.
Quality requires the full commitment of the employees as they can’t provide a high quality of performance unless there is a commitment of all employees of the institution to provide high quality and they are motivated and trained to deliver quality; workers should be interested in satisfying their customers who recieve the same attention to satisfy their external customers.
Quality requires strong and high-quality participants. Delivering high quality is an integral part. It requires that the participants in the value chain systems and value delivery systems adhere to global performance in order to achieve the overall targeted quality in terms of suppliers and all participants.
Overall quality can be improved continuously, and the best means to improve the attempt to achieve or surpass that performance are required.
Quality does not cost a lot. The misconception that better quality will cost the enterprise more and reduce production speed should change.
Quality is necessary but may not be sufficient because the highest quality may not include the achievement of a competitive advantage because the pursuit of competitive institutions to achieve the same level of quality therefore requires the institutions to rely on more innovative entries to look at their markets in order to improve their competitive position.
3.1. Methodological Approach
The design of current research was built based on adopting the quantitative approach. The quantitative approach was supported by the use of a questionnaire as a tool of study which was divided into two main sections; the first took into perspective the demographic variables of the sample (gender, age, qualification, experience and position), while the second part of the questionnaire took into perspective the variables of TQMk, including customer focus approach, service quality and market orientation.
3.2. Population and Sampling Process
The population of study consisted of marketing and project managers within telecommunication organizations in Jordan including Zain, Umniah and Orange. After contacting the HR (Human Recourses) department within the organizations under study, a meeting was held in order to highlight the main aim of study, describe the procedures and highlight the level of participation required by volunteering individuals.
All volunteering individuals were informed of their rights through the process of participation, which included the confidentiality of their information, their freedom of withdrawal and their right to be informed with the results later on. At the end, a sample of 22 managers volunteered their time to take part in the study; the sample included managers of social marketing, internal marketing, international marketing and e-marketing. After the application process, 18 were retrieved as sufficient for statistical analysis which makes the response rate 81.81%.
The application process took place at each organization’s premises; the HR department received the questionnaires and took the responsibility to distribute them to participants at their offices and recollect them through a workday. The application process took a whole workday, which meant that the researcher spent three days distributing and collecting questionnaires from participants.
3.3. Data Screening and Analysis
Data screening and analysis was done through SPSS v. 26th; a reliability test was employed in order to evaluate the consistency of study tool. Cronbach’s Alpha was employed and gave a value of 0.97 for all items in the questionnaire. The results also indicated that the statements scored higher than the accepted percentage (0.60) which gave an indication of the toll consistency and supported its use within the study. Generally speaking, tests which were used in analyzing data of the current study included:
5. Discussion and Conclusions
5.1. Results Discussion
The study aimed to examine the influence of TQMk on the effectiveness of e-marketing approaches within the telecommunication sector in Jordan. A sample from the main telecommunication organizations in Jordan was chosen in order to represent the population. Total of 18 managers from marketing departments were exposed to a questionnaire of the study, which focused on three main variables of TQMk, including market orientation, customer focus and service quality. Results of the study indicated that there was an influence of TQMk on the effectiveness of e-marketing approaches within telecommunication organizations in Jordan.
As it appeared in the results above, the most influential variable of TQMk was the customer-focused approach, scoring an R
value of 0.884, indicating that following a customer-focused approach is the best way to gain the effectiveness of e-marketing strategies within an organization. Results of study matched with what [24
] stated that many businesses are based on customers, regardless of whether they are individuals, companies, a construction or other classifications. However, what brings these together is the urgent need to win them and build a base of customers who have loyalty to the product or service to gradually expand. Therefore, when preparing the study for the target project, the customer must understand the product to suit their needs and expectations.
Additionally, agreed with the study results when they argued that there is some misconduct for the entrepreneurs [23
], where the focus is only on the quality of the product with the omission of the customer’s satisfaction with the product, and here it should be noted that the introduction of a product of high quality does not necessarily mean that there is a demand for this product, as the high quality will be met by high cost, whether due to materials or labor, and therefore, the product price will be high which means that there is a certain segment that will be targeted to market the product.
Results of the study indicated that the sharp competition between organizations in adopting the principles of total quality in marketing has led to the need to focus on satisfying the needs and desires of the client, as successful organizations always strive to improve the level of their services provided to clients in order to retain them and continue their dealings with the organization. Satisfaction can be expressed from the point of view of quality management as the individual’s perception resulting from the comparison between the product’s performance as perceived by the customer and the customer’s expectations. It can be said that customer satisfaction is an indicator of the difference between performance and expectations.
In the second rank of influence on e-marketing effectiveness came the variable of service quality, which scored an R
value of 0.880, indicating that the variable was effective on e-marketing. It is widely known that quality is one of the first things that customers put into perspective when making a certain purchase decision. Thus, even when e-marketing is used, customers still focus on service quality as a part of their right to be served in a way that satisfies them. Results matched with [35
] when they argued that service quality is the first motivator for customers to make a purchase decision; they also added that the intention of a customer to make the purchase decision, again, is determined by the level of service quality that they got the first time.
On the other hand, supported the results [39
], arguing that service quality is important regardless of the marketing approach, but when it comes to e-marketing, then service quality is more important since the customer was not looking for the product; it was marketed to them in their own homes through social media or any other marketing approach; thus, in order to win the customer, there is a need to satisfy them to the maximum as a form of pushing them towards making the purchase decision [40
Management focuses on customer satisfaction in the long run and not on its satisfaction in the short term by providing them with complete and accurate information. The customer may assume that the product with the highest price is the highest quality compared to the product with the lowest price. But that is often incorrect. The process of focusing on the client requires attention towards them and to meet their needs and desires and also their happiness.
The current study aimed to examine the role of TQMk in increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of e-marketing within the telecommunication sector in Jordan, which involved three main organizations (Zain, Umniah and Orange). Hence, the importance of Total Quality Marketing (TQMk) was reflected in the fact that this change encompasses most of the practices and activities in the field of work related to the organization. The change has the ability to touch many aspects of organizational work, including the teamwork, involvement of employees, effectiveness of e-marketing strategies and the continuous improvement of the organizational performance as a whole.
Through the study, it was found that TQM is the gateway that can bring about a radical change in the organizational culture and transform it from the traditional administrative method to the modern method that serves to achieve a high level of quality for the product or service. From here, the importance of Total Marketing Quality Management is evident, as this change includes most of the jobs and areas of work in the organization, relying on teamwork, cooperation and continuous improvement of overall performance to achieve long-term success by satisfying the organization’s customers in particular.
Abandoning the principles of quality management in marketing will lead the organizations to find themselves outside the market and outside the framework of competition, and they will lose their customers gradually because the consumer has become aware that the goods and services that are provided according to high quality standards are the best and of good quality; thus, they will submit to their request and buy it.
This study was limited due to COVID-19; the researcher aimed first to employ a qualitative approach; however, due to COVID 19 pandemic and the lockdown and quarantine that accompanied it, a quantitative approach was the only option, as most of study respondents were working from home, and the main aim was to interview them face-to-face and gain from them answers to prompt questions in order to get deep and valid answers. From that point, it was decided to employ the quantitative approach through the questionnaire in order to commit to health precaution measures.
Emerging from results of study, in addition to the discussion and conclusion, the current research recommends the following:
TQMk should be studied within the field of social marketing by measuring the degree of approach of the organization from its target customer and its success in the acquisition of satisfaction.
The clients’ needs and desires in the market should be studied according to the supply and demand theory; this enables the organization to employ the e-marketing plans in the best way possible; in addition to that, the total awareness of the market has the ability to speed up the process of marketing the product, and market entry is the main objective in the first phase.
The customer-focused approach should be extended to after-sales or service delivery through a customer satisfaction questionnaire whether orally or in writing, and a written method is recommended here to give the client the opportunity to comment transparently and without compliments.