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Special Issue "Advances in Molecular Plant Biology"

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A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2012)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jörg Nickelsen (Website)

AG Molekulare Pflanzenwissenschaften, Fakultät für Biologie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Großhaderner Str. 2-4, D-82152 Planegg-Martinsried, Germany
Fax: +49 89 218099 74773

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recent years have seen substantial progress in elucidating the molecular principles which underly plant biology. The identification of various factors and their cognate target sites involved in the control of regulatory circuits for plant development as well as adaption processes has led to distinct molecular models of how plants or eukaryotic algae cope with different environmental challenges like fluctuating light, water and nutrient conditions as well as different types of stress including pathogenic attack. As a plant-specific organelle which is involved in photosynthesis and most metabolic pathways within the cell, especially, the chloroplast has attracted much attention. The accumulating knowledge on plant molecular biology now provides the basis for targeted genetic manipulation and, thus, a next generation of transgenic plant lines with optimized economic and ecological traits is developing. This special issue is dedicated to a current overview on molecular principles of plant biology in both plants and eukaryotic algae.

Prof. Dr. Jörg Nickelsen
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • transcriptional control of plant gene expression
  • RNA metabolism
  • translational control mechanisms in plants
  • the role of non-coding RNAs for plant biology
  • targeted genetic manipulation of plants and biotechnological applications
  • functional genomics of plant biology
  • molecular biology of chloroplasts and mitochondria
  • signal transduction in plants

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Published Papers (34 papers)

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Open AccessArticle Biomolecular Characterization of Diazotrophs Isolated from the Tropical Soil in Malaysia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(9), 17812-17829; doi:10.3390/ijms140917812
Received: 2 June 2013 / Revised: 30 July 2013 / Accepted: 31 July 2013 / Published: 30 August 2013
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Abstract
This study was conducted to evaluate selected biomolecular characteristics of rice root-associated diazotrophs isolated from the Tanjong Karang rice irrigation project area of Malaysia. Soil and rice plant samples were collected from seven soil series belonging to order Inceptisol (USDA soil taxonomy). [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to evaluate selected biomolecular characteristics of rice root-associated diazotrophs isolated from the Tanjong Karang rice irrigation project area of Malaysia. Soil and rice plant samples were collected from seven soil series belonging to order Inceptisol (USDA soil taxonomy). A total of 38 diazotrophs were isolated using a nitrogen-free medium. The biochemical properties of the isolated bacteria, such as nitrogenase activity, indoleacetic acid (IAA) production and sugar utilization, were measured. According to a cluster analysis of Jaccard’s similarity coefficients, the genetic similarities among the isolated diazotrophs ranged from 10% to 100%. A dendogram constructed using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) showed that the isolated diazotrophs clustered into 12 groups. The genomic DNA rep-PCR data were subjected to a principal component analysis, and the first four principal components (PC) accounted for 52.46% of the total variation among the 38 diazotrophs. The 10 diazotrophs that tested highly positive in the acetylene reduction assay (ARA) were identified as Bacillus spp. (9 diazotrophs) and Burkholderia sp. (Sb16) using the partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. In the analysis of the biochemical characteristics, three principal components were accounted for approximately 85% of the total variation among the identified diazotrophs. The examination of root colonization using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) proved that two of the isolated diazotrophs (Sb16 and Sb26) were able to colonize the surface and interior of rice roots and fixed 22%–24% of the total tissue nitrogen from the atmosphere. In general, the tropical soils (Inceptisols) of the Tanjong Karang rice irrigation project area in Malaysia harbor a diverse group of diazotrophs that exhibit a large variation of biomolecular characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Plant Biology)
Open AccessArticle Identification and Phylogenetic Analysis of a CC-NBS-LRR Encoding Gene Assigned on Chromosome 7B of Wheat
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(8), 15330-15347; doi:10.3390/ijms140815330
Received: 7 June 2013 / Revised: 11 July 2013 / Accepted: 15 July 2013 / Published: 24 July 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1266 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hexaploid wheat displays limited genetic variation. As a direct A and B genome donor of hexaploid wheat, tetraploid wheat represents an important gene pool for cultivated bread wheat. Many disease resistant genes express conserved domains of the nucleotide-binding site and leucine-rich repeats [...] Read more.
Hexaploid wheat displays limited genetic variation. As a direct A and B genome donor of hexaploid wheat, tetraploid wheat represents an important gene pool for cultivated bread wheat. Many disease resistant genes express conserved domains of the nucleotide-binding site and leucine-rich repeats (NBS-LRR). In this study, we isolated a CC-NBS-LRR gene locating on chromosome 7B from durum wheat variety Italy 363, and designated it TdRGA-7Ba. Its open reading frame was 4014 bp, encoding a 1337 amino acid protein with a complete NBS domain and 18 LRR repeats, sharing 44.7% identity with the PM3B protein. TdRGA-7Ba expression was continuously seen at low levels and was highest in leaves. TdRGA-7Ba has another allele TdRGA-7Bb with a 4 bp deletion at position +1892 in other cultivars of tetraploid wheat. In Ae. speltoides, as a B genome progenitor, both TdRGA-7Ba and TdRGA-7Bb were detected. In all six species of hexaploid wheats (AABBDD), only TdRGA-7Bb existed. Phylogenic analysis showed that all TdRGA-7Bb type genes were grouped in one sub-branch. We speculate that TdRGA-7Bb was derived from a TdRGA-7Ba mutation, and it happened in Ae. speltoides. Both types of TdRGA-7B participated in tetraploid wheat formation. However, only the TdRGA-7Bb was retained in hexaploid wheat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Plant Biology)
Open AccessArticle The Characterization of SaPIN2b, a Plant Trichome-Localized Proteinase Inhibitor from Solanum americanum
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(11), 15162-15176; doi:10.3390/ijms131115162
Received: 25 July 2012 / Revised: 9 October 2012 / Accepted: 29 October 2012 / Published: 16 November 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (639 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Proteinase inhibitors play an important role in plant resistance of insects and pathogens. In this study, we characterized the serine proteinase inhibitor SaPIN2b, which is constitutively expressed in Solanum americanum trichomes and contains two conserved motifs of the proteinase inhibitor II (PIN2) [...] Read more.
Proteinase inhibitors play an important role in plant resistance of insects and pathogens. In this study, we characterized the serine proteinase inhibitor SaPIN2b, which is constitutively expressed in Solanum americanum trichomes and contains two conserved motifs of the proteinase inhibitor II (PIN2) family. The recombinant SaPIN2b (rSaPIN2b), which was expressed in Escherichia coli, was demonstrated to be a potent proteinase inhibitor against a panel of serine proteinases, including subtilisin A, chymotrypsin and trypsin. Moreover, rSaPIN2b also effectively inhibited the proteinase activities of midgut trypsin-like proteinases that were extracted from the devastating pest Helicoverpa armigera. Furthermore, the overexpression of SaPIN2b in transgenic tobacco plants resulted in enhanced resistance against H. armigera. Taken together, our results demonstrated that SaPIN2b is a potent serine proteinase inhibitor that may act as a protective protein in plant defense against insect attacks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Plant Biology)
Open AccessArticle Transcriptomic Analysis of Phenotypic Changes in Birch (Betula platyphylla) Autotetraploids
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(10), 13012-13029; doi:10.3390/ijms131013012
Received: 19 August 2012 / Revised: 30 September 2012 / Accepted: 30 September 2012 / Published: 11 October 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1725 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Plant breeders have focused much attention on polyploid trees because of their importance to forestry. To evaluate the impact of intraspecies genome duplication on the transcriptome, a series of Betula platyphylla autotetraploids and diploids were generated from four full-sib families. The phenotypes [...] Read more.
Plant breeders have focused much attention on polyploid trees because of their importance to forestry. To evaluate the impact of intraspecies genome duplication on the transcriptome, a series of Betula platyphylla autotetraploids and diploids were generated from four full-sib families. The phenotypes and transcriptomes of these autotetraploid individuals were compared with those of diploid trees. Autotetraploids were generally superior in breast-height diameter, volume, leaf, fruit and stoma and were generally inferior in height compared to diploids. Transcriptome data revealed numerous changes in gene expression attributable to autotetraploidization, which resulted in the upregulation of 7052 unigenes and the downregulation of 3658 unigenes. Pathway analysis revealed that the biosynthesis and signal transduction of indoleacetate (IAA) and ethylene were altered after genome duplication, which may have contributed to phenotypic changes. These results shed light on variations in birch autotetraploidization and help identify important genes for the genetic engineering of birch trees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Plant Biology)
Open AccessArticle Genetic Diversity and Population Structure: Implications for Conservation of Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc) Based on Nuclear and Chloroplast Microsatellite Variation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(10), 12608-12628; doi:10.3390/ijms131012608
Received: 27 July 2012 / Revised: 24 August 2012 / Accepted: 12 September 2012 / Published: 3 October 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (767 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc) is the most important germplasm resource for soybean breeding, and is currently subject to habitat loss, fragmentation and population decline. In order to develop successful conservation strategies, a total of 604 wild soybean accessions [...] Read more.
Wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc) is the most important germplasm resource for soybean breeding, and is currently subject to habitat loss, fragmentation and population decline. In order to develop successful conservation strategies, a total of 604 wild soybean accessions from 43 locations sampled across its range in China, Japan and Korea were analyzed using 20 nuclear (nSSRs) and five chloroplast microsatellite markers (cpSSRs) to reveal its genetic diversity and population structure. Relatively high nSSR diversity was found in wild soybean compared with other self-pollinated species, and the region of middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River (MDRY) was revealed to have the highest genetic diversity. However, cpSSRs suggested that Korea is a center of diversity. High genetic differentiation and low gene flow among populations were detected, which is consistent with the predominant self-pollination of wild soybean. Two main clusters were revealed by MCMC structure reconstruction and phylogenetic dendrogram, one formed by a group of populations from northwestern China (NWC) and north China (NC), and the other including northeastern China (NEC), Japan, Korea, MDRY, south China (SC) and southwestern China (SWC). Contrib analyses showed that southwestern China makes the greatest contribution to the total diversity and allelic richness, and is worthy of being given conservation priority. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Plant Biology)
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Open AccessArticle Microsatellite Mutation Rate during Allohexaploidization of Newly Resynthesized Wheat
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(10), 12533-12543; doi:10.3390/ijms131012533
Received: 30 July 2012 / Revised: 18 September 2012 / Accepted: 19 September 2012 / Published: 1 October 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (839 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Simple sequence repeats (SSRs, also known as microsatellites) are known to be mutational hotspots in genomes. DNA rearrangements have also been reported to accompany allopolyploidization. A study of the effect of allopolyploidization on SSR mutation is therefore important for understanding the origin [...] Read more.
Simple sequence repeats (SSRs, also known as microsatellites) are known to be mutational hotspots in genomes. DNA rearrangements have also been reported to accompany allopolyploidization. A study of the effect of allopolyploidization on SSR mutation is therefore important for understanding the origin and evolutionary dynamics of SSRs in allopolyploids. Three synthesized double haploid (SynDH) populations were made from 241 interspecific F1 haploid hybrids between Triticum turgidum L. and Aegilops tauschii (Coss.) through spontaneous chromosome doubling via unreduced gametes. Mutation events were studied at 160 SSR loci in the S1 generation (the first generation after chromosome doubling) of the three SynDH populations. Of the 148260 SSR alleles investigated in S1 generation, only one mutation (changed number of repeats) was confirmed with a mutation rate of 6.74 × 10−6. This mutation most likely occurred in the respective F1 hybrid. In comparison with previously reported data, our results suggested that allohexaploidization of wheat did not increase SSR mutation rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Plant Biology)
Open AccessArticle SIG1, a Sigma Factor for the Chloroplast RNA Polymerase, Differently Associates with Multiple DNA Regions in the Chloroplast Chromosomes in Vivo
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(10), 12182-12194; doi:10.3390/ijms131012182
Received: 1 June 2012 / Revised: 5 September 2012 / Accepted: 11 September 2012 / Published: 25 September 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1332 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chloroplasts have their own DNA and gene expression systems. Transcription in chloroplasts is regulated by two types of RNA polymerase, nuclear-encoded plastid RNA polymerase (NEP) and plastid-encoded plastid RNA polymerase (PEP), and multiple sigma factors for PEP. To study transcriptional regulation in [...] Read more.
Chloroplasts have their own DNA and gene expression systems. Transcription in chloroplasts is regulated by two types of RNA polymerase, nuclear-encoded plastid RNA polymerase (NEP) and plastid-encoded plastid RNA polymerase (PEP), and multiple sigma factors for PEP. To study transcriptional regulation in chloroplasts, a molecular genetic approach has extensively been used. However, this method may include indirect effects, and it cannot be applied to the analysis of factors essential to survival. These limitations make understanding specific regulation by transcription factors difficult. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a powerful and useful tool for obtaining information on transcription-factor binding sites; it can directly detect dynamic changes in their interaction patterns in vivo. To further understand transcriptional regulation in chloroplasts, we here established a ChIP-based method in Arabidopsis thaliana and analyzed the binding pattern of a chloroplast sigma factor, SIG1. We found that SIG1 specifically binds to newly identified target promoters as well as to a set of promoters of genes whose mRNA expression is dependent on OsSIG1 in rice and that this binding changed in response to high-light stress. These results suggested that the ChIP-based approach is very useful in understanding transcriptional regulation of chloroplast genes and can overcome several problems posed by conventional methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Plant Biology)
Open AccessArticle The Opuntia streptacantha OpsHSP18 Gene Confers Salt and Osmotic Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10154-10175; doi:10.3390/ijms130810154
Received: 27 May 2012 / Revised: 1 August 2012 / Accepted: 7 August 2012 / Published: 15 August 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (494 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Abiotic stress limits seed germination, plant growth, flowering and fruit quality, causing economic decrease. Small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSPs) are chaperons with roles in stress tolerance. Herein, we report the functional characterization of a cytosolic class CI sHSP (OpsHSP18) from Opuntia streptacantha [...] Read more.
Abiotic stress limits seed germination, plant growth, flowering and fruit quality, causing economic decrease. Small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSPs) are chaperons with roles in stress tolerance. Herein, we report the functional characterization of a cytosolic class CI sHSP (OpsHSP18) from Opuntia streptacantha during seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic lines subjected to different stress and hormone treatments. The over-expression of the OpsHSP18 gene in A. thaliana increased the seed germination rate under salt (NaCl) and osmotic (glucose and mannitol) stress, and in ABA treatments, compared with WT. On the other hand, the over-expression of the OpsHSP18 gene enhanced tolerance to salt (150 mM NaCl) and osmotic (274 mM mannitol) stress in Arabidopsis seedlings treated during 14 and 21 days, respectively. These plants showed increased survival rates (52.00 and 73.33%, respectively) with respect to the WT (18.75 and 53.75%, respectively). Thus, our results show that OpsHSP18 gene might have an important role in abiotic stress tolerance, in particular in seed germination and survival rate of Arabidopsis plants under unfavorable conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Plant Biology)
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Open AccessArticle RNA-Mediated Gene Silencing Signals Are Not Graft Transmissible from the Rootstock to the Scion in Greenhouse-Grown Apple Plants Malus sp.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9992-10009; doi:10.3390/ijms13089992
Received: 20 June 2012 / Revised: 18 July 2012 / Accepted: 25 July 2012 / Published: 10 August 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (546 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
RNA silencing describes the sequence specific degradation of RNA targets. Silencing is a non-cell autonomous event that is graft transmissible in different plant species. The present study is the first report on systemic acquired dsRNA-mediated gene silencing of transgenic and endogenous gene [...] Read more.
RNA silencing describes the sequence specific degradation of RNA targets. Silencing is a non-cell autonomous event that is graft transmissible in different plant species. The present study is the first report on systemic acquired dsRNA-mediated gene silencing of transgenic and endogenous gene sequences in a woody plant like apple. Transgenic apple plants overexpressing a hairpin gene construct of the gusA reporter gene were produced. These plants were used as rootstocks and grafted with scions of the gusA overexpressing transgenic apple clone T355. After grafting, we observed a reduction of the gusA gene expression in T355 scions in vitro, but not in T355 scions grown in the greenhouse. Similar results were obtained after silencing of the endogenous Mdans gene in apple that is responsible for anthocyanin biosynthesis. Subsequently, we performed grafting experiments with Mdans silenced rootstocks and red leaf scions of TNR31-35 in order to evaluate graft transmitted silencing of the endogenous Mdans. The results obtained suggested a graft transmission of silencing signals in in vitro shoots. In contrast, no graft transmission of dsRNA-mediated gene silencing signals was detectable in greenhouse-grown plants and in plants grown in an insect protection tent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Plant Biology)
Open AccessArticle Molecular Characterization and Comparative Sequence Analysis of Defense-Related Gene, Oryza rufipogon Receptor-Like Protein Kinase 1
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(7), 9343-9362; doi:10.3390/ijms13079343
Received: 30 May 2012 / Revised: 6 July 2012 / Accepted: 6 July 2012 / Published: 24 July 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1838 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Many of the plant leucine rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) have been found to regulate signaling during plant defense processes. In this study, we selected and sequenced an LRR-RLK gene, designated as Oryza rufipogon receptor-like protein kinase 1 (OrufRPK1), located [...] Read more.
Many of the plant leucine rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) have been found to regulate signaling during plant defense processes. In this study, we selected and sequenced an LRR-RLK gene, designated as Oryza rufipogon receptor-like protein kinase 1 (OrufRPK1), located within yield QTL yld1.1 from the wild rice Oryza rufipogon (accession IRGC105491). A 2055 bp coding region and two exons were identified. Southern blotting determined OrufRPK1 to be a single copy gene. Sequence comparison with cultivated rice orthologs (OsI219RPK1, OsI9311RPK1 and OsJNipponRPK1, respectively derived from O. sativa ssp. indica cv. MR219, O. sativa ssp. indica cv. 9311 and O. sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare) revealed the presence of 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with five non-synonymous substitutions, and 23 insertion/deletion sites. The biological role of the OrufRPK1 as a defense related LRR-RLK is proposed on the basis of cDNA sequence characterization, domain subfamily classification, structural prediction of extra cellular domains, cluster analysis and comparative gene expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Plant Biology)
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Open AccessArticle HR4 Gene Is Induced in the Arabidopsis-Trichoderma atroviride Beneficial Interaction
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(7), 9110-9128; doi:10.3390/ijms13079110
Received: 8 May 2012 / Revised: 28 June 2012 / Accepted: 12 July 2012 / Published: 20 July 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2584 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Plants are constantly exposed to microbes, for this reason they have evolved sophisticated strategies to perceive and identify biotic interactions. Thus, plants have large collections of so-called resistance (R) proteins that recognize specific microbe factors as signals of invasion. One of these [...] Read more.
Plants are constantly exposed to microbes, for this reason they have evolved sophisticated strategies to perceive and identify biotic interactions. Thus, plants have large collections of so-called resistance (R) proteins that recognize specific microbe factors as signals of invasion. One of these proteins is codified by the Arabidopsis thaliana HR4 gene in the Col-0 ecotype that is homologous to RPW8 genes present in the Ms-0 ecotype. In this study, we investigated the expression patterns of the HR4 gene in Arabidopsis seedlings interacting with the beneficial fungus Trichoderma atroviride. We observed the induction of the HR4 gene mainly at 96 hpi when the fungus interaction was established. Furthermore, we found that the HR4 gene was differentially regulated in interactions with the beneficial bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens and the pathogenic bacterium P. syringae. When hormone treatments were applied to A. thaliana (Col-0), each hormone treatment induced changes in HR4 gene expression. On the other hand, the expression of the RPW8.1 and RPW8.2 genes of Arabidopsis ecotype Ms-0 in interaction with T. atroviride was assessed. Interestingly, these genes are interaction-responsive; in particular, the RPW8.1 gene shows a very high level of expression in the later stages of interaction. These results indicate that HR4 and RPW8 genes could play a role in the establishment of Arabidopsis interactions with beneficial microbes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Plant Biology)
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Open AccessArticle Involvement of Disperse Repetitive Sequences in Wheat/Rye Genome Adjustment
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(7), 8549-8561; doi:10.3390/ijms13078549
Received: 1 June 2012 / Revised: 25 June 2012 / Accepted: 4 July 2012 / Published: 10 July 2012
PDF Full-text (184 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The union of different genomes in the same nucleus frequently results in hybrid genotypes with improved genome plasticity related to both genome remodeling events and changes in gene expression. Most modern cereal crops are polyploid species. Triticale, synthesized by the cross between [...] Read more.
The union of different genomes in the same nucleus frequently results in hybrid genotypes with improved genome plasticity related to both genome remodeling events and changes in gene expression. Most modern cereal crops are polyploid species. Triticale, synthesized by the cross between wheat and rye, constitutes an excellent model to study polyploidization functional implications. We intend to attain a deeper knowledge of dispersed repetitive sequence involvement in parental genome reshuffle in triticale and in wheat-rye addition lines that have the entire wheat genome plus each rye chromosome pair. Through Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis with OPH20 10-mer primer we unraveled clear alterations corresponding to the loss of specific bands from both parental genomes. Moreover, the sequential nature of those events was revealed by the increased absence of rye-origin bands in wheat-rye addition lines in comparison with triticale. Remodeled band sequencing revealed that both repetitive and coding genome domains are affected in wheat-rye hybrid genotypes. Additionally, the amplification and sequencing of pSc20H internal segments showed that the disappearance of parental bands may result from restricted sequence alterations and unraveled the involvement of wheat/rye related repetitive sequences in genome adjustment needed for hybrid plant stabilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Plant Biology)
Open AccessArticle DsHsp90 Is Involved in the Early Response of Dunaliella salina to Environmental Stress
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(7), 7963-7979; doi:10.3390/ijms13077963
Received: 7 May 2012 / Revised: 20 June 2012 / Accepted: 20 June 2012 / Published: 27 June 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (870 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone highly conserved across the species from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Hsp90 is essential for cell viability under all growth conditions and is proposed to act as a hub of the signaling network and protein [...] Read more.
Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone highly conserved across the species from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Hsp90 is essential for cell viability under all growth conditions and is proposed to act as a hub of the signaling network and protein homeostasis of the eukaryotic cells. By interacting with various client proteins, Hsp90 is involved in diverse physiological processes such as signal transduction, cell mobility, heat shock response and osmotic stress response. In this research, we cloned the dshsp90 gene encoding a polypeptide composed of 696 amino acids from the halotolerant unicellular green algae Dunaliella salina. Sequence alignment indicated that DsHsp90 belonged to the cytosolic Hsp90A family. Further biophysical and biochemical studies of the recombinant protein revealed that DsHsp90 possessed ATPase activity and existed as a dimer with similar percentages of secondary structures to those well-studied Hsp90As. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the cloned genomic DNA fragment indicated that dshsp90 contained 21 exons interrupted by 20 introns, which is much more complicated than the other plant hsp90 genes. The promoter region of dshsp90 contained putative cis-acting stress responsive elements and binding sites of transcriptional factors that respond to heat shock and salt stress. Further experimental research confirmed that dshsp90 was upregulated quickly by heat and salt shock in the D. salina cells. These findings suggested that dshsp90 might serve as a component of the early response system of the D. salina cells against environmental stresses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Plant Biology)
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Open AccessArticle Introgression Between Cultivars and Wild Populations of Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae) in Taiwan
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(5), 6469-6491; doi:10.3390/ijms13056469
Received: 20 March 2012 / Revised: 16 May 2012 / Accepted: 18 May 2012 / Published: 24 May 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (557 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The landrace strains of Momordica charantia are widely cultivated vegetables throughout the tropics and subtropics, but not in Taiwan, a continental island in Southeast Asia, until a few hundred years ago. In contrast, the related wild populations with smaller fruit sizes are [...] Read more.
The landrace strains of Momordica charantia are widely cultivated vegetables throughout the tropics and subtropics, but not in Taiwan, a continental island in Southeast Asia, until a few hundred years ago. In contrast, the related wild populations with smaller fruit sizes are native to Taiwan. Because of the introduction of cultivars for agricultural purposes, these two accessions currently exhibit a sympatric or parapatric distribution in Taiwan. In this study, the cultivars and wild samples from Taiwan, India, and Korea were collected for testing of their hybridization and evolutionary patterns. The cpDNA marker showed a clear distinction between accessions of cultivars and wild populations of Taiwan and a long divergence time. In contrast, an analysis of eight selectively neutral nuclear microsatellite loci did not reveal a difference between the genetic structures of these two accessions. A relatively short divergence time and frequent but asymmetric gene flows were estimated based on the isolation-with-migration model. Historical and current introgression from cultivars to wild populations of Taiwan was also inferred using MIGRATE-n and BayesAss analyses. Our results showed that these two accessions shared abundant common ancestral polymorphisms, and the timing of the divergence and colonization of the Taiwanese wild populations is consistent with the geohistory of the Taiwan Strait land bridge of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Long-term and recurrent introgression between accessions indicated the asymmetric capacity to receive foreign genes from other accessions. The modern introduction of cultivars of M. charantia during the colonization of Taiwan by the Han Chinese ethnic group enhanced the rate of gene replacement in the native populations and resulted in the loss of native genes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Plant Biology)
Open AccessArticle Simple and Rapid Molecular Techniques for Identification of Amylose Levels in Rice Varieties
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(5), 6156-6166; doi:10.3390/ijms13056156
Received: 17 February 2012 / Revised: 3 May 2012 / Accepted: 9 May 2012 / Published: 18 May 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (284 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The polymorphisms of Waxy (Wx) microsatellite and G-T single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the Wx gene region were analyzed using simplified techniques in fifteen rice varieties. A rapid and reliable electrophoresis method, MetaPhor agarose gel electrophoresis (MAGE), was effectively employed as [...] Read more.
The polymorphisms of Waxy (Wx) microsatellite and G-T single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the Wx gene region were analyzed using simplified techniques in fifteen rice varieties. A rapid and reliable electrophoresis method, MetaPhor agarose gel electrophoresis (MAGE), was effectively employed as an alternative to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) for separating Wx microsatellite alleles. The amplified products containing the Wx microsatellite ranged from 100 to 130 bp in length. Five Wx microsatellite alleles, namely (CT)10, (CT)11, (CT)16, (CT)17, and (CT)18 were identified. Of these, (CT)11 and (CT)17 were the predominant classes among the tested varieties. All varieties with an apparent amylose content higher than 24% were associated with the shorter repeat alleles; (CT)10 and (CT)11, while varieties with 24% or less amylose were associated with the longer repeat alleles. All varieties with intermediate and high amylose content had the sequence AGGTATA at the 5'-leader intron splice site, while varieties with low amylose content had the sequence AGTTATA. The G-T polymorphism was further verified by the PCR-AccI cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) method, in which only genotypes containing the AGGTATA sequence were cleaved by AccI. Hence, varieties with desirable amylose levels can be developed rapidly using the Wx microsatellite and G-T SNP, along with MAGE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Plant Biology)
Open AccessArticle Combinatorial Signal Integration by APETALA2/Ethylene Response Factor (ERF)-Transcription Factors and the Involvement of AP2-2 in Starvation Response
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(5), 5933-5951; doi:10.3390/ijms13055933
Received: 15 March 2012 / Revised: 21 April 2012 / Accepted: 8 May 2012 / Published: 16 May 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1243 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Transcription factors of the APETALA 2/Ethylene Response Factor (AP2/ERF)-family have been implicated in diverse processes during development, stress acclimation and retrograde signaling. Fifty-three leaf-expressed AP2/ERFs were screened for their transcriptional response to abscisic acid (ABA), 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), methylviologen (MV), sucrose and high [...] Read more.
Transcription factors of the APETALA 2/Ethylene Response Factor (AP2/ERF)-family have been implicated in diverse processes during development, stress acclimation and retrograde signaling. Fifty-three leaf-expressed AP2/ERFs were screened for their transcriptional response to abscisic acid (ABA), 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), methylviologen (MV), sucrose and high or low light, respectively, and revealed high reactivity to these effectors. Six of them (AP2-2, ARF14, CEJ1, ERF8, ERF11, RAP2.5) were selected for combinatorial response analysis to ABA, DCMU and high light. Additive, synergistic and antagonistic effects demonstrated that these transcription factors are components of multiple signaling pathways. AP2-2 (At1g79700) was subjected to an in depth study. AP2-2 transcripts were high under conditions linked to limited carbohydrate availability and stress and down-regulated in extended light phase, high light or in the presence of sugar. ap2-2 knock out plants had unchanged metabolite profiles and transcript levels of co-expressed genes in extended darkness. However, ap2-2 revealed more efficient germination and faster early growth under high sugar, osmotic or salinity stress, but the difference was abolished in the absence of sugar or during subsequent growth. It is suggested that AP2-2 is involved in mediating starvation-related and hormonal signals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Plant Biology)
Open AccessArticle Expression of Selected Ginkgo biloba Heat Shock Protein Genes After Cold Treatment Could Be Induced by Other Abiotic Stress
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(5), 5768-5788; doi:10.3390/ijms13055768
Received: 21 March 2012 / Revised: 26 April 2012 / Accepted: 2 May 2012 / Published: 15 May 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2154 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play various stress-protective roles in plants. In this study, three HSP genes were isolated from a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library of Ginkgo biloba leaves treated with cold stress. Based on the molecular weight, the three genes [...] Read more.
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play various stress-protective roles in plants. In this study, three HSP genes were isolated from a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library of Ginkgo biloba leaves treated with cold stress. Based on the molecular weight, the three genes were designated GbHSP16.8, GbHSP17 and GbHSP70. The full length of the three genes were predicted to encode three polypeptide chains containing 149 amino acids (Aa), 152 Aa, and 657 Aa, and their corresponding molecular weights were predicted as follows: 16.67 kDa, 17.39 kDa, and 71.81 kDa respectively. The three genes exhibited distinctive expression patterns in different organs or development stages. GbHSP16.8 and GbHSP70 showed high expression levels in leaves and a low level in gynoecia, GbHSP17 showed a higher transcription in stamens and lower level in fruit. This result indicates that GbHSP16.8 and GbHSP70 may play important roles in Ginkgo leaf development and photosynthesis, and GbHSP17 may play a positive role in pollen maturation. All three GbHSPs were up-regulated under cold stress, whereas extreme heat stress only caused up-regulation of GbHSP70, UV-B treatment resulted in up-regulation of GbHSP16.8 and GbHSP17, wounding treatment resulted in up-regulation of GbHSP16.8 and GbHSP70, and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment caused up-regulation of GbHSP70 primarily. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Plant Biology)
Open AccessArticle Genetic Diversity of the Endemic and Medicinally Important Plant Rheum officinale as Revealed by Inter-Simpe Sequence Repeat (ISSR) Markers
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(3), 3900-3915; doi:10.3390/ijms13033900
Received: 3 February 2012 / Revised: 8 March 2012 / Accepted: 13 March 2012 / Published: 22 March 2012
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (385 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rheum officinale Baill., an important but endangered medicinal herb, is endemic to China. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were employed to investigate the genetic diversity and differentiation of 12 populations of R. officinale. Thirteen selected primers yielded 189 bright and discernible [...] Read more.
Rheum officinale Baill., an important but endangered medicinal herb, is endemic to China. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were employed to investigate the genetic diversity and differentiation of 12 populations of R. officinale. Thirteen selected primers yielded 189 bright and discernible bands, with an average of 14.54 per primer. The genetic diversity was low at the population level, but pretty high at the species level (H = 0.1008, I = 0.1505, PPB = 28.95% vs. H = 0.3341, I = 0.5000, PPB = 95.24%, respectively) by POPGENE analysis. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that the genetic variation was found mainly among populations (74.38%), in line with the limited gene flow (Nm = 0.2766) among populations. Mantel test revealed a significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances (r = 0.5381, P = 0.002), indicating the role of geographic isolation in shaping the present population genetic structure. Both Bayesian analysis and UPGMA cluster analysis demonstrated the similar results. Our results imply that the conservation efforts should aim to preserve all the extant populations of this endangered species, and cultivation is proposed in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Plant Biology)
Open AccessArticle Expression Analysis of Four Peroxiredoxin Genes from Tamarix hispida in Response to Different Abiotic Stresses and Exogenous Abscisic Acid (ABA)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(3), 3751-3764; doi:10.3390/ijms13033751
Received: 3 February 2012 / Revised: 3 March 2012 / Accepted: 6 March 2012 / Published: 21 March 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (308 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are a recently discovered family of antioxidant enzymes that catalyze the reduction of peroxides and alkyl peroxides. In this study, four Prx genes (named as ThPrxII, ThPrxIIE, ThPrxIIF, and Th2CysPrx) were cloned from Tamarix hispida. [...] Read more.
Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are a recently discovered family of antioxidant enzymes that catalyze the reduction of peroxides and alkyl peroxides. In this study, four Prx genes (named as ThPrxII, ThPrxIIE, ThPrxIIF, and Th2CysPrx) were cloned from Tamarix hispida. Their expression profiles in response to stimulus of NaCl, NaHCO3, PEG, CdCl2 and abscisic acid (ABA) in roots, stems and leaves of T. hispida were investigated using real-time RT-PCR. The results showed that the four ThPrxs were all expressed in roots, stems and leaves. Furthermore, the transcript levels of ThPrxIIE and ThPrxII were the lowest and the highest, respectively, in all tissue types. All the ThPrx genes were induced by both NaCl and NaHCO3 and reached their highest expression levels at the onset of stress in roots. Under PEG and CdCl2 stress, the expression patterns of these ThPrxs showed temporal and spatial specificity. The expressions of the ThPrxs were all differentially regulated by ABA, indicating that they are all involved in the ABA signaling pathway. These findings reveal a complex regulation of Prxs that is dependent on the type of Prx, tissue, and the signaling molecule. The divergence of the stress-dependent transcriptional regulation of the ThPrx gene family in T. hispida may provide an essential basis for the elucidation of Prx function in future work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Plant Biology)
Open AccessArticle Homologous NF-YC2 Subunit from Arabidopsis and Tobacco Is Activated by Photooxidative Stress and Induces Flowering
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(3), 3458-3477; doi:10.3390/ijms13033458
Received: 30 January 2012 / Revised: 29 February 2012 / Accepted: 1 March 2012 / Published: 13 March 2012
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (643 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The transcription factor NF-Y consists of the three subunits A, B and C, which are encoded in Arabidopsis in large gene families. The multiplicity of the genes implies that NF-Y may act in diverse combinations of each subunit for the transcriptional control. [...] Read more.
The transcription factor NF-Y consists of the three subunits A, B and C, which are encoded in Arabidopsis in large gene families. The multiplicity of the genes implies that NF-Y may act in diverse combinations of each subunit for the transcriptional control. We aimed to assign a function in stress response and plant development to NF-YC subunits by analyzing the expression of NF-Y genes and exploitation of nf-y mutants. Among the subunit family, NF-YC2 showed the strongest inducibility towards oxidative stress, e.g. photodynamic, light, oxidative, heat and drought stress. A tobacco NF-YC homologous gene was found to be inducible by photooxidative stress generated by an accumulation of the tetrapyrrole metabolite, coproporphyrin. Despite the stress induction, an Arabidopsis nf-yc2 mutant and NF-YC2 overexpressors did not show phenotypical differences compared to wild-type seedlings in response to photooxidative stress. This can be explained by the compensatory potential of other members of the NF-YC family. However, NF-YC2 overexpression leads to an early flowering phenotype that is correlated with increased FLOWERING LOCUS T-transcript levels. It is proposed that NF-YC2 functions in floral induction and is a candidate gene among the NF-Y family for the transcriptional activation upon oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Plant Biology)
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Open AccessArticle Expression Analysis of an R3-Type MYB Transcription Factor CPC-LIKE MYB4 (TRICHOMELESS2) and CPL4-Related Transcripts in Arabidopsis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(3), 3478-3491; doi:10.3390/ijms13033478
Received: 14 February 2012 / Revised: 5 March 2012 / Accepted: 5 March 2012 / Published: 13 March 2012
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (570 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The CAPRICE (CPC)-like MYB gene family encodes R3-type MYB transcription factors in Arabidopsis. There are six additional CPC-like MYB sequences in the Arabidopsis genome, including TRYPTICHON (TRY), ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC1 and 2 (ETC1 [...] Read more.
The CAPRICE (CPC)-like MYB gene family encodes R3-type MYB transcription factors in Arabidopsis. There are six additional CPC-like MYB sequences in the Arabidopsis genome, including TRYPTICHON (TRY), ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC1 and 2 (ETC1 and ETC2), ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC3/CPC-LIKE MYB3 (ETC3/CPL3), and TRICHOMELESS1 and 2 (TCL1 and TCL2). We independently identified CPC-LIKE MYB4 (CPL4), which was found to be identical to TCL2. RT-PCR analysis showed that CPL4 is strongly expressed in shoots, including true leaves, but not in roots. Promoter-GUS analyses indicated that CPL4 is specifically expressed in leaf blades. Although CPC expression was repressed in 35S::ETC1, 35S::ETC2 and 35S::CPL3 backgrounds, CPL4 expression was not affected by ETC1, ETC2 or CPL3 over-expression. Notably, several chimeric transcripts may result from inter-genic alternative splicing of CPL4 and ETC2, two tandemly repeated genes on chromosome II. At least two chimeric transcripts named CPL4-α and CPL4-β are expected to encode complete CPC-like MYB proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Plant Biology)
Open AccessArticle Arabidopsis Serine Decarboxylase Mutants Implicate the Roles of Ethanolamine in Plant Growth and Development
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(3), 3176-3188; doi:10.3390/ijms13033176
Received: 1 February 2012 / Revised: 20 February 2012 / Accepted: 1 March 2012 / Published: 7 March 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1216 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ethanolamine is important for synthesis of choline, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) in plants. The latter two phospholipids are the major phospholipids in eukaryotic membranes. In plants, ethanolamine is mainly synthesized directly from serine by serine decarboxylase. Serine decarboxylase is unique to [...] Read more.
Ethanolamine is important for synthesis of choline, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) in plants. The latter two phospholipids are the major phospholipids in eukaryotic membranes. In plants, ethanolamine is mainly synthesized directly from serine by serine decarboxylase. Serine decarboxylase is unique to plants and was previously shown to have highly specific activity to L-serine. While serine decarboxylase was biochemically characterized, its functions and importance in plants were not biologically elucidated due to the lack of serine decarboxylase mutants. Here we characterized an Arabidopsis mutant defective in serine decarboxylase, named atsdc-1 (Arabidopsis thaliana serine decarboxylase-1). The atsdc-1 mutants showed necrotic lesions in leaves, multiple inflorescences, sterility in flower, and early flowering in short day conditions. These defects were rescued by ethanolamine application to atsdc-1, suggesting the roles of ethanolamine as well as serine decarboxylase in plant development. In addition, molecular analysis of serine decarboxylase suggests that Arabidopsis serine decarboxylase is cytosol-localized and expressed in all tissue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Plant Biology)
Open AccessArticle Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs from Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) by High-Throughput Sequencing
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(3), 2973-2984; doi:10.3390/ijms13032973
Received: 10 February 2012 / Revised: 29 February 2012 / Accepted: 1 March 2012 / Published: 6 March 2012
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (547 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous RNAs that regulates the gene expression involved in various biological and metabolic processes. Barley is one of the most important cereal crops worldwide and is a model organism for genetic and genomic studies in Triticeae [...] Read more.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous RNAs that regulates the gene expression involved in various biological and metabolic processes. Barley is one of the most important cereal crops worldwide and is a model organism for genetic and genomic studies in Triticeae species. However, the miRNA research in barley has lagged behind other model species in grass family. To obtain more information of miRNA genes in barley, we sequenced a small RNA library created from a pool of equal amounts of RNA from four different tissues using Solexa sequencing. In addition to 126 conserved miRNAs (58 families), 133 novel miRNAs belonging to 50 families were identified from this sequence data set. The miRNA* sequences of 15 novel miRNAs were also discovered, suggesting the additional evidence for existence of these miRNAs. qRT-PCR was used to examine the expression pattern of six randomly selected miRNAs. Some miRNAs involved in drought and salt stress response were also identified. Furthermore, the potential targets of these putative miRNAs were predicted using the psRNATarget tools. Our results significantly increased the number of novel miRNAs in barley, which should be useful for further investigation into the biological functions and evolution of miRNAs in barley and other species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Plant Biology)
Open AccessArticle Expression Analysis of MYC Genes from Tamarix hispida in Response to Different Abiotic Stresses
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(2), 1300-1313; doi:10.3390/ijms13021300
Received: 6 December 2011 / Revised: 11 January 2012 / Accepted: 12 January 2012 / Published: 25 January 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (258 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The MYC genes are a group of transcription factors containing both bHLH and ZIP motifs that play important roles in the regulation of abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive genes. In the present study, to investigate the roles of MYC genes under NaCl, osmotic and [...] Read more.
The MYC genes are a group of transcription factors containing both bHLH and ZIP motifs that play important roles in the regulation of abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive genes. In the present study, to investigate the roles of MYC genes under NaCl, osmotic and ABA stress conditions, nine MYC genes were cloned from Tamarix hispida. Real-time reverse-transcriptase (RT)-PCR showed that all nine MYC genes were expressed in root, stem and leaf tissues, but that the levels of the transcripts of these genes in the various tissues differed notably. The MYC genes were highly induced in the roots in response to ABA, NaCl and osmotic stresses after 3 h; however, in the stem and leaf tissues, MYC genes were highly induced only when exposed to these stresses for 6 h. In addition, most of these MYC genes were highly expressed in roots in comparison with stems and leaves. Furthermore, the MYC genes were more highly induced in roots than in stem and leaf tissues, indicating that these genes may play roles in stress responses mainly in the roots rather than the stems and leaves. The results of this present study suggest that MYCs are involved in salt and osmotic stress tolerances and are controlled by the ABA signal transduction pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Plant Biology)
Open AccessArticle Assessment of Genetic Diversity of Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) Using ISSR Markers
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(1), 383-392; doi:10.3390/ijms13010383
Received: 16 November 2011 / Revised: 2 December 2011 / Accepted: 19 December 2011 / Published: 29 December 2011
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (130 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) is a major turfgrass for home lawns, public parks, golf courses and sport fields and is known to have originated in the Middle East. Morphological and physiological characteristics are not sufficient to differentiate some bermudagrass genotypes because the differences [...] Read more.
Bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) is a major turfgrass for home lawns, public parks, golf courses and sport fields and is known to have originated in the Middle East. Morphological and physiological characteristics are not sufficient to differentiate some bermudagrass genotypes because the differences between them are often subtle and subjected to environmental influences. In this study, twenty seven bermudagrass accessions and introductions, mostly from different parts of Iran, were assayed by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers to differentiate and explore their genetic relationships. Fourteen ISSR primers amplified 389 fragments of which 313 (80.5%) were polymorphic. The average polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.328, which shows that the majority of primers are informative. Cluster analysis using the un-weighted paired group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) method and Jaccard’s similarity coefficient (r = 0.828) grouped the accessions into six main clusters according to some degree to geographical origin, their chromosome number and some morphological characteristics. It can be concluded that there exists a wide genetic base of bermudograss in Iran and that ISSR markers are effective in determining genetic diversity and relationships among them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Plant Biology)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview The Role of F-Box Proteins during Viral Infection
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(2), 4030-4049; doi:10.3390/ijms14024030
Received: 23 October 2012 / Revised: 14 December 2012 / Accepted: 17 January 2013 / Published: 18 February 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (207 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The F-box domain is a protein structural motif of about 50 amino acids that mediates protein–protein interactions. The F-box protein is one of the four components of the SCF (SKp1, Cullin, F-box protein) complex, which mediates ubiquitination of proteins targeted for degradation [...] Read more.
The F-box domain is a protein structural motif of about 50 amino acids that mediates protein–protein interactions. The F-box protein is one of the four components of the SCF (SKp1, Cullin, F-box protein) complex, which mediates ubiquitination of proteins targeted for degradation by the proteasome, playing an essential role in many cellular processes. Several discoveries have been made on the use of the ubiquitin–proteasome system by viruses of several families to complete their infection cycle. On the other hand, F-box proteins can be used in the defense response by the host. This review describes the role of F-box proteins and the use of the ubiquitin–proteasome system in virus–host interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Plant Biology)
Open AccessReview Dual Targeting and Retrograde Translocation: Regulators of Plant Nuclear Gene Expression Can Be Sequestered by Plastids
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(9), 11085-11101; doi:10.3390/ijms130911085
Received: 17 July 2012 / Revised: 21 August 2012 / Accepted: 23 August 2012 / Published: 6 September 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (316 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Changes in the developmental or metabolic state of plastids can trigger profound changes in the transcript profiles of nuclear genes. Many nuclear transcription factors were shown to be controlled by signals generated in the organelles. In addition to the many different compounds [...] Read more.
Changes in the developmental or metabolic state of plastids can trigger profound changes in the transcript profiles of nuclear genes. Many nuclear transcription factors were shown to be controlled by signals generated in the organelles. In addition to the many different compounds for which an involvement in retrograde signaling is discussed, accumulating evidence suggests a role for proteins in plastid-to-nucleus communication. These proteins might be sequestered in the plastids before they act as transcriptional regulators in the nucleus. Indeed, several proteins exhibiting a dual localization in the plastids and the nucleus are promising candidates for such a direct signal transduction involving regulatory protein storage in the plastids. Among such proteins, the nuclear transcription factor WHIRLY1 stands out as being the only protein for which an export from plastids and translocation to the nucleus has been experimentally demonstrated. Other proteins, however, strongly support the notion that this pathway might be more common than currently believed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Plant Biology)
Open AccessReview Molecular Tools for Exploring Polyploid Genomes in Plants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10316-10335; doi:10.3390/ijms130810316
Received: 27 June 2012 / Revised: 3 August 2012 / Accepted: 6 August 2012 / Published: 17 August 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (354 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polyploidy is a very common phenomenon in the plant kingdom, where even diploid species are often described as paleopolyploids. The polyploid condition may bring about several advantages compared to the diploid state. Polyploids often show phenotypes that are not present in their [...] Read more.
Polyploidy is a very common phenomenon in the plant kingdom, where even diploid species are often described as paleopolyploids. The polyploid condition may bring about several advantages compared to the diploid state. Polyploids often show phenotypes that are not present in their diploid progenitors or exceed the range of the contributing species. Some of these traits may play a role in heterosis or could favor adaptation to new ecological niches. Advances in genomics and sequencing technology may create unprecedented opportunities for discovering and monitoring the molecular effects of polyploidization. Through this review, we provide an overview of technologies and strategies that may allow an in-depth analysis of polyploid genomes. After introducing some basic aspects on the origin and genetics of polyploids, we highlight the main tools available for genome and gene expression analysis and summarize major findings. In the last part of this review, the implications of next generation sequencing are briefly discussed. The accumulation of knowledge on polyploid formation, maintenance, and divergence at whole-genome and subgenome levels will not only help plant biologists to understand how plants have evolved and diversified, but also assist plant breeders in designing new strategies for crop improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Plant Biology)
Open AccessReview Molecular Mechanisms of Epigenetic Variation in Plants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9900-9922; doi:10.3390/ijms13089900
Received: 30 May 2012 / Revised: 27 July 2012 / Accepted: 30 July 2012 / Published: 8 August 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (630 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Natural variation is defined as the phenotypic variation caused by spontaneous mutations. In general, mutations are associated with changes of nucleotide sequence, and many mutations in genes that can cause changes in plant development have been identified. Epigenetic change, which does not [...] Read more.
Natural variation is defined as the phenotypic variation caused by spontaneous mutations. In general, mutations are associated with changes of nucleotide sequence, and many mutations in genes that can cause changes in plant development have been identified. Epigenetic change, which does not involve alteration to the nucleotide sequence, can also cause changes in gene activity by changing the structure of chromatin through DNA methylation or histone modifications. Now there is evidence based on induced or spontaneous mutants that epigenetic changes can cause altering plant phenotypes. Epigenetic changes have occurred frequently in plants, and some are heritable or metastable causing variation in epigenetic status within or between species. Therefore, heritable epigenetic variation as well as genetic variation has the potential to drive natural variation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Plant Biology)
Open AccessReview Multiple Mechanisms and Challenges for the Application of Allopolyploidy in Plants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(7), 8696-8721; doi:10.3390/ijms13078696
Received: 30 May 2012 / Revised: 4 July 2012 / Accepted: 4 July 2012 / Published: 13 July 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (498 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An allopolyploid is an individual having two or more complete sets of chromosomes derived from different species. Generation of allopolyploids might be rare because of the need to overcome limitations such as co-existing populations of parental lines, overcoming hybrid incompatibility, gametic non-reduction, [...] Read more.
An allopolyploid is an individual having two or more complete sets of chromosomes derived from different species. Generation of allopolyploids might be rare because of the need to overcome limitations such as co-existing populations of parental lines, overcoming hybrid incompatibility, gametic non-reduction, and the requirement for chromosome doubling. However, allopolyploids are widely observed among plant species, so allopolyploids have succeeded in overcoming these limitations and may have a selective advantage. As techniques for making allopolyploids are developed, we can compare transcription, genome organization, and epigenetic modifications between synthesized allopolyploids and their direct parental lines or between several generations of allopolyploids. It has been suggested that divergence of transcription caused either genetically or epigenetically, which can contribute to plant phenotype, is important for the adaptation of allopolyploids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Plant Biology)
Open AccessReview Recent Molecular Advances on Downstream Plant Responses to Abiotic Stress
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(7), 8628-8647; doi:10.3390/ijms13078628
Received: 4 June 2012 / Revised: 30 June 2012 / Accepted: 3 July 2012 / Published: 11 July 2012
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (173 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Abiotic stresses such as extremes of temperature and pH, high salinity and drought, comprise some of the major factors causing extensive losses to crop production worldwide. Understanding how plants respond and adapt at cellular and molecular levels to continuous environmental changes is [...] Read more.
Abiotic stresses such as extremes of temperature and pH, high salinity and drought, comprise some of the major factors causing extensive losses to crop production worldwide. Understanding how plants respond and adapt at cellular and molecular levels to continuous environmental changes is a pre-requisite for the generation of resistant or tolerant plants to abiotic stresses. In this review we aimed to present the recent advances on mechanisms of downstream plant responses to abiotic stresses and the use of stress-related genes in the development of genetically engineered crops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Plant Biology)
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Open AccessReview Glutamine Synthetase in Legumes: Recent Advances in Enzyme Structure and Functional Genomics
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(7), 7994-8024; doi:10.3390/ijms13077994
Received: 16 May 2012 / Revised: 18 June 2012 / Accepted: 19 June 2012 / Published: 28 June 2012
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (901 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Glutamine synthetase (GS) is the key enzyme involved in the assimilation of ammonia derived either from nitrate reduction, N2 fixation, photorespiration or asparagine breakdown. A small gene family is encoding for different cytosolic (GS1) or plastidic (GS2) isoforms in legumes. We [...] Read more.
Glutamine synthetase (GS) is the key enzyme involved in the assimilation of ammonia derived either from nitrate reduction, N2 fixation, photorespiration or asparagine breakdown. A small gene family is encoding for different cytosolic (GS1) or plastidic (GS2) isoforms in legumes. We summarize here the recent advances carried out concerning the quaternary structure of GS, as well as the functional relationship existing between GS2 and processes such as nodulation, photorespiration and water stress, in this latter case by means of proline production. Functional genomic analysis using GS2-minus mutant reveals the key role of GS2 in the metabolic control of the plants and, more particularly, in carbon metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Plant Biology)
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Open AccessReview Mitogen-Activated Protein (MAP) Kinases in Plant Metal Stress: Regulation and Responses in Comparison to Other Biotic and Abiotic Stresses
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(6), 7828-7853; doi:10.3390/ijms13067828
Received: 31 May 2012 / Revised: 16 June 2012 / Accepted: 18 June 2012 / Published: 21 June 2012
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (189 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Exposure of plants to toxic concentrations of metals leads to disruption of the cellular redox status followed by an accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS, like hydrogen peroxide, can act as signaling molecules in the cell and induce signaling via mitogen-activated [...] Read more.
Exposure of plants to toxic concentrations of metals leads to disruption of the cellular redox status followed by an accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS, like hydrogen peroxide, can act as signaling molecules in the cell and induce signaling via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. MAPK cascades are evolutionary conserved signal transduction modules, able to convert extracellular signals to appropriate cellular responses. In this review, our current understanding about MAPK signaling in plant metal stress is discussed. However, this knowledge is scarce compared to research into the role of MAPK signaling in the case of other abiotic and biotic stresses. ROS production is a common response induced by different stresses and undiscovered analogies may exist with metal stress. Therefore, further attention is given to MAPK signaling in other biotic and abiotic stresses and its interplay with other signaling pathways to create a framework in which the involvement of MAPK signaling in metal stress may be studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Plant Biology)
Open AccessReview Recent Advances of Flowering Locus T Gene in Higher Plants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(3), 3773-3781; doi:10.3390/ijms13033773
Received: 25 January 2012 / Revised: 9 March 2012 / Accepted: 13 March 2012 / Published: 21 March 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (106 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Flowering Locus T (FT) can promote flowering in the plant photoperiod pathway and also facilitates vernalization flowering pathways and other ways to promote flowering. The expression of products of the FT gene is recognized as important parts of the flowering [...] Read more.
Flowering Locus T (FT) can promote flowering in the plant photoperiod pathway and also facilitates vernalization flowering pathways and other ways to promote flowering. The expression of products of the FT gene is recognized as important parts of the flowering hormone and can induce flowering by long-distance transportation. In the present study, many FT-like genes were isolated, and the transgenic results show that FT gene can promote flowering in plants. This paper reviews the progress of the FT gene and its expression products to provide meaningful information for further studies of the functions of FT genes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Plant Biology)

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