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Multiple Mechanisms and Challenges for the Application of Allopolyploidy in Plants
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Plant Industry, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia
Watanabe Seed Co., Ltd, Machiyashiki, Misato-cho, Miyagi 987-8607, Japan
Gregor Mendel Institute of Molecular Plant Biology, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Dr. Bohrgasse 3, Vienna 1030, Austria
Laboratory of Plant Breeding, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kobe University, Nada, Kobe 657-8510, Japan
Cell and Developmental Biology, John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Colney, Norwich, NR4 7UH, UK
Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Ikarashi-ninocho, Niigata 950-2181, Japan
Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 981-8555, Japan
These authors equally contributed to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 May 2012; in revised form: 4 July 2012 / Accepted: 4 July 2012 / Published: 13 July 2012
Abstract: An allopolyploid is an individual having two or more complete sets of chromosomes derived from different species. Generation of allopolyploids might be rare because of the need to overcome limitations such as co-existing populations of parental lines, overcoming hybrid incompatibility, gametic non-reduction, and the requirement for chromosome doubling. However, allopolyploids are widely observed among plant species, so allopolyploids have succeeded in overcoming these limitations and may have a selective advantage. As techniques for making allopolyploids are developed, we can compare transcription, genome organization, and epigenetic modifications between synthesized allopolyploids and their direct parental lines or between several generations of allopolyploids. It has been suggested that divergence of transcription caused either genetically or epigenetically, which can contribute to plant phenotype, is important for the adaptation of allopolyploids.
Keywords: allopolyploid; self-compatibility; cytoplasmic male sterility; reproductive barrier; epigenetics
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Osabe, K.; Kawanabe, T.; Sasaki, T.; Ishikawa, R.; Okazaki, K.; Dennis, E.S.; Kazama, T.; Fujimoto, R. Multiple Mechanisms and Challenges for the Application of Allopolyploidy in Plants. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 8696-8721.
Osabe K, Kawanabe T, Sasaki T, Ishikawa R, Okazaki K, Dennis ES, Kazama T, Fujimoto R. Multiple Mechanisms and Challenges for the Application of Allopolyploidy in Plants. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(7):8696-8721.
Osabe, Kenji; Kawanabe, Takahiro; Sasaki, Taku; Ishikawa, Ryo; Okazaki, Keiichi; Dennis, Elizabeth S.; Kazama, Tomohiko; Fujimoto, Ryo. 2012. "Multiple Mechanisms and Challenges for the Application of Allopolyploidy in Plants." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 7: 8696-8721.