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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(7), 8696-8721; doi:10.3390/ijms13078696
Review

Multiple Mechanisms and Challenges for the Application of Allopolyploidy in Plants

1,†
, 2,†
, 3,†
, 4,5
, 6
, 1
, 7
 and 6,*
1 Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Plant Industry, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia 2 Watanabe Seed Co., Ltd, Machiyashiki, Misato-cho, Miyagi 987-8607, Japan 3 Gregor Mendel Institute of Molecular Plant Biology, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Dr. Bohrgasse 3, Vienna 1030, Austria 4 Laboratory of Plant Breeding, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kobe University, Nada, Kobe 657-8510, Japan 5 Cell and Developmental Biology, John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Colney, Norwich, NR4 7UH, UK 6 Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Ikarashi-ninocho, Niigata 950-2181, Japan 7 Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 981-8555, Japan These authors equally contributed to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 May 2012 / Revised: 4 July 2012 / Accepted: 4 July 2012 / Published: 13 July 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Plant Biology)
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Abstract

An allopolyploid is an individual having two or more complete sets of chromosomes derived from different species. Generation of allopolyploids might be rare because of the need to overcome limitations such as co-existing populations of parental lines, overcoming hybrid incompatibility, gametic non-reduction, and the requirement for chromosome doubling. However, allopolyploids are widely observed among plant species, so allopolyploids have succeeded in overcoming these limitations and may have a selective advantage. As techniques for making allopolyploids are developed, we can compare transcription, genome organization, and epigenetic modifications between synthesized allopolyploids and their direct parental lines or between several generations of allopolyploids. It has been suggested that divergence of transcription caused either genetically or epigenetically, which can contribute to plant phenotype, is important for the adaptation of allopolyploids.
Keywords: allopolyploid; self-compatibility; cytoplasmic male sterility; reproductive barrier; epigenetics allopolyploid; self-compatibility; cytoplasmic male sterility; reproductive barrier; epigenetics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Osabe, K.; Kawanabe, T.; Sasaki, T.; Ishikawa, R.; Okazaki, K.; Dennis, E.S.; Kazama, T.; Fujimoto, R. Multiple Mechanisms and Challenges for the Application of Allopolyploidy in Plants. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 8696-8721.

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