Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(6), 7828-7853; doi:10.3390/ijms13067828
Review

Mitogen-Activated Protein (MAP) Kinases in Plant Metal Stress: Regulation and Responses in Comparison to Other Biotic and Abiotic Stresses

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Received: 31 May 2012; in revised form: 16 June 2012 / Accepted: 18 June 2012 / Published: 21 June 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Plant Biology)
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Abstract: Exposure of plants to toxic concentrations of metals leads to disruption of the cellular redox status followed by an accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS, like hydrogen peroxide, can act as signaling molecules in the cell and induce signaling via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. MAPK cascades are evolutionary conserved signal transduction modules, able to convert extracellular signals to appropriate cellular responses. In this review, our current understanding about MAPK signaling in plant metal stress is discussed. However, this knowledge is scarce compared to research into the role of MAPK signaling in the case of other abiotic and biotic stresses. ROS production is a common response induced by different stresses and undiscovered analogies may exist with metal stress. Therefore, further attention is given to MAPK signaling in other biotic and abiotic stresses and its interplay with other signaling pathways to create a framework in which the involvement of MAPK signaling in metal stress may be studied.
Keywords: toxic metals; oxidative stress; reactive oxygen species (ROS); MAPK cascades; phosphatases; WRKY’s; ZAT12; antioxidative defense system; ethylene; jasmonic acid
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Opdenakker, K.; Remans, T.; Vangronsveld, J.; Cuypers, A. Mitogen-Activated Protein (MAP) Kinases in Plant Metal Stress: Regulation and Responses in Comparison to Other Biotic and Abiotic Stresses. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 7828-7853.

AMA Style

Opdenakker K, Remans T, Vangronsveld J, Cuypers A. Mitogen-Activated Protein (MAP) Kinases in Plant Metal Stress: Regulation and Responses in Comparison to Other Biotic and Abiotic Stresses. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(6):7828-7853.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Opdenakker, Kelly; Remans, Tony; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Cuypers, Ann. 2012. "Mitogen-Activated Protein (MAP) Kinases in Plant Metal Stress: Regulation and Responses in Comparison to Other Biotic and Abiotic Stresses." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 6: 7828-7853.


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