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Dual Targeting and Retrograde Translocation: Regulators of Plant Nuclear Gene Expression Can Be Sequestered by Plastids
Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, University of Tromsø, Tromsø 9037, Norway
Institute of Botany, University of Kiel, Olshausenstrasse 40, Kiel 24098, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 July 2012; in revised form: 21 August 2012 / Accepted: 23 August 2012 / Published: 6 September 2012
Abstract: Changes in the developmental or metabolic state of plastids can trigger profound changes in the transcript profiles of nuclear genes. Many nuclear transcription factors were shown to be controlled by signals generated in the organelles. In addition to the many different compounds for which an involvement in retrograde signaling is discussed, accumulating evidence suggests a role for proteins in plastid-to-nucleus communication. These proteins might be sequestered in the plastids before they act as transcriptional regulators in the nucleus. Indeed, several proteins exhibiting a dual localization in the plastids and the nucleus are promising candidates for such a direct signal transduction involving regulatory protein storage in the plastids. Among such proteins, the nuclear transcription factor WHIRLY1 stands out as being the only protein for which an export from plastids and translocation to the nucleus has been experimentally demonstrated. Other proteins, however, strongly support the notion that this pathway might be more common than currently believed.
Keywords: chloroplasts; protein targeting; retrograde signals; WHIRLY1
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Krause, K.; Oetke, S.; Krupinska, K. Dual Targeting and Retrograde Translocation: Regulators of Plant Nuclear Gene Expression Can Be Sequestered by Plastids. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 11085-11101.
Krause K, Oetke S, Krupinska K. Dual Targeting and Retrograde Translocation: Regulators of Plant Nuclear Gene Expression Can Be Sequestered by Plastids. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(9):11085-11101.
Krause, Kirsten; Oetke, Svenja; Krupinska, Karin. 2012. "Dual Targeting and Retrograde Translocation: Regulators of Plant Nuclear Gene Expression Can Be Sequestered by Plastids." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 9: 11085-11101.