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J. Funct. Biomater., Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2012), Pages 1-224

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Biomechanical Conditioning Enhanced Matrix Synthesis in Nucleus Pulposus Cells Cultured in Agarose Constructs with TGFβ
J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(1), 23-36; doi:10.3390/jfb3010023
Received: 30 November 2011 / Revised: 23 December 2011 / Accepted: 28 December 2011 / Published: 5 January 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (368 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biomechanical signals play an important role in normal disc metabolism and pathology. For instance, nucleus pulposus (NP) cells will regulate metabolic activities and maintain a balance between the anabolic and catabolic cascades. The former involves factors such as transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) and
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Biomechanical signals play an important role in normal disc metabolism and pathology. For instance, nucleus pulposus (NP) cells will regulate metabolic activities and maintain a balance between the anabolic and catabolic cascades. The former involves factors such as transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) and mechanical stimuli, both of which are known to regulate matrix production through autocrine and paracrine mechanisms. The present study examined the combined effect of TGFβ and mechanical loading on anabolic activities in NP cells cultured in agarose constructs. Stimulation with TGFβ and dynamic compression reduced nitrite release and increased matrix synthesis and gene expression of aggrecan and collagen type II. The findings from this work has the potential for developing regenerative treatment strategies which could either slow down or stop the degenerative process and/or promote healing mechanisms in the intervertebral disc. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanics of Cells in Context with Biomaterials)
Open AccessArticle Potentials of Chitosan-Based Delivery Systems in Wound Therapy: Bioadhesion Study
J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(1), 37-48; doi:10.3390/jfb3010037
Received: 6 October 2011 / Revised: 9 November 2011 / Accepted: 27 December 2011 / Published: 6 January 2012
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (351 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chitosan is currently proposed to be one of the most promising polymers in wound dressing development. Our research focuses on its potential as a vehicle for nano-delivery systems destined for burn therapy. One of the most important features of wound dressing is its
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Chitosan is currently proposed to be one of the most promising polymers in wound dressing development. Our research focuses on its potential as a vehicle for nano-delivery systems destined for burn therapy. One of the most important features of wound dressing is its bioadhesion to the wounded site. We compared the bioadhesive properties of chitosan with those of Carbopol, a synthetic origin polymer. Chitosan-based hydrogels of different molecular weights were first analyzed by texture analysis for gel cohesiveness, adhesiveness and hardness. In vitro release studies showed no difference in release of model antimicrobial drug from the different hydrogel formulations. Bioadhesion tests were performed on pig ear skin and the detachment force, necessary to remove the die from the skin, and the amount of remaining formulation on the skin were determined. Although no significant difference regarding detachment force could be seen between Carbopol-based and chitosan-based formulations, almost double the amount of chitosan formulation remained on the skin as compared to Carbopol formulations. The findings confirmed the great potential of chitosan-based delivery systems in advanced wound therapy. Moreover, results suggest that formulation retention on the ex vivo skin samples could provide deeper insight on formulation bioadhesiveness than the determination of detachment force. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials for Wound Healing)
Open AccessArticle Monodisperse 130 kDa and 260 kDa Recombinant Human Hemoglobin Polymers as Scaffolds for Protein Engineering of Hemoglobin-Based Oxygen Carriers
J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(1), 61-78; doi:10.3390/jfb3010061
Received: 3 November 2011 / Revised: 29 December 2011 / Accepted: 5 January 2012 / Published: 13 January 2012
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Abstract
A recombinant 130 kDa dihemoglobin which is made up of a single-chain tetra-α globin and four β globins has been expressed as a soluble protein in E. coli. The sequence of the single chain tetra-α is: αI-Gly-αII-(SerGlyGly)5Ser-αIII-Gly-αIV. This dihemoglobin has been purified
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A recombinant 130 kDa dihemoglobin which is made up of a single-chain tetra-α globin and four β globins has been expressed as a soluble protein in E. coli. The sequence of the single chain tetra-α is: αI-Gly-αII-(SerGlyGly)5Ser-αIII-Gly-αIV. This dihemoglobin has been purified and characterized in vitro by size exclusion chromatography, electrospray mass spectroscopy, equilibrium oxygen binding, and analytical ultracentrifugation. The observed values of P50 and nmax for the dihemoglobin are slightly lower than those observed for the recombinant hemoglobin rHb1.1 (a “monohemoglobin” comprised of two β globins and an αI-Gly-αII diα-globin chain). Titration of the deoxy form of dihemoglobin with CO shows that all eight heme centers bind ligand. In vivo, dihemoglobin showed increased circulating halflife and a reduced pressor response in conscious rats when compared to rHb1.1. These observations suggest that dihemoglobin is an oxygen carrying molecule with desirable in vivo properties and provides a platform for an isooncotic hemoglobin solution derived solely from a recombinant source. A 260 kDa tetrahemoglobin has also been produced by chemical crosslinking of a dihemoglobin that contains a Lys16Cys mutation in the C-terminal α-globin subunit. Tetrahemoglobin also shows reduced vasoactivity in conscious rats that is comparable to that observed for dihemoglobin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blood Substitutes)
Open AccessArticle Prediction of True Circulatory Decompensation in Chronic Heart Failure for Optimal Timing of Mechanical Circulatory Support: Non-Invasive Arterial-Ventricular Coupling
J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(1), 100-113; doi:10.3390/jfb3010100
Received: 8 December 2011 / Revised: 18 January 2012 / Accepted: 28 January 2012 / Published: 1 February 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1081 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Prospective comparative studies to predict the risk of hemodynamic deterioration in patients referred for transplantation were performed on the basis of standard invasive and non-invasive data and new wave intensity (WI) parameters. Methods and results: Study Group 1 consisted of 151 consecutive
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Background: Prospective comparative studies to predict the risk of hemodynamic deterioration in patients referred for transplantation were performed on the basis of standard invasive and non-invasive data and new wave intensity (WI) parameters. Methods and results: Study Group 1 consisted of 151 consecutive outpatients (age 48.7 ± 12 years; 110 men) with end-stage dilative cardiomyopathy. Group 2, consisting of 11 consecutive patients (age 50 ± 11 years; 6 men) with sinus rhythm and “true” decompensation, was used to create “critical values” of WI. There were no demographic or somatic (weight and height) differences between the groups. The follow-up period of ambulatory patients was 31 ± 8 months. Non-invasive WI was studied in the common carotid artery. Complete invasive and non-invasive data were also recorded on the day of investigation. During follow-up 44 pts were lost; there were 15 cardiac deaths (10%), life-saving ventricular assist device implantation in 10 (6.6%) and transplantation in 19 (12.7%). For statistical purposes this group was named the “events” Group B (n = 44). A predisposing factor for events (death, “true” decompensation and “urgent” transplantation in ambulatory patients) was low first peak (“cut-off value” assessed in Group 2 < 4100 mmHg*s³) (OR 45.6, CI 14.5–143.3, p < 0.001). Less powerful predictors of the risk of deterioration were pulmonary capillary pressure (PCP), diastolic pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and E/A mitral wave relation (p = 0.05). Conclusions: The new ventricular-arterial coupling parameter 1st peak of WI can potentially be used to distinguish patients at high risk for true deterioration and death. This parameter can be used to predict the need for assist device implantation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Organs and Biomaterials)
Open AccessArticle Preparation and Functional Assessment of Composite Chitosan-Nano-Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration
J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(1), 114-130; doi:10.3390/jfb3010114
Received: 22 November 2011 / Revised: 19 January 2012 / Accepted: 31 January 2012 / Published: 13 February 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1302 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Composite chitosan-nano-hydroxyapatite microspheres and scaffolds prepared using a co-precipitation method have shown potential for use in bone regeneration. The goal of this research was to improve the functional properties of the composite scaffolds by modifying the fabrication parameters. The effects of degree of
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Composite chitosan-nano-hydroxyapatite microspheres and scaffolds prepared using a co-precipitation method have shown potential for use in bone regeneration. The goal of this research was to improve the functional properties of the composite scaffolds by modifying the fabrication parameters. The effects of degree of deacetylation (DDA), drying method, hydroxyapatite content and an acid wash on scaffold properties were investigated. Freeze-dried 61% DDA scaffolds degraded faster (3.5 ± 0.5% mass loss) than air-dried 61% DDA scaffolds and 80% DDA scaffolds, but had a lower compressive modulus of 0.12 ± 0.01 MPa. Air-dried 80% DDA scaffolds displayed the highest compressive modulus (3.79 ± 0.51 MPa) and these scaffolds were chosen as the best candidate for use in bone regeneration. Increasing the amount of hydroxyapatite in the air-dried 80% DDA scaffolds did not further increase the compressive modulus of the scaffolds. An acid wash procedure at pH 6.1 was found to increase the degradation of air-dried 80% DDA scaffolds from 1.3 ± 0.1% to 4.4 ± 0.4%. All of the formulations tested supported the proliferation of SAOS-2 cells. Full article
Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Evaluation of a Molecularly Imprinted Polymer for Selective Solid-Phase Extraction of Irinotecan from Human Serum Samples
J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(1), 131-142; doi:10.3390/jfb3010131
Received: 12 January 2012 / Revised: 11 February 2012 / Accepted: 11 February 2012 / Published: 20 February 2012
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Abstract
A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was synthesized by non-covalent imprinting polymerization using irinotecan as template. Methacrylic acid and 4-vinylpyridine were selected as functional monomers. An optimized procedure coupled to LC-PDA analysis was developed for the selective solid-phase extraction of irinotecan from various organic
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A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was synthesized by non-covalent imprinting polymerization using irinotecan as template. Methacrylic acid and 4-vinylpyridine were selected as functional monomers. An optimized procedure coupled to LC-PDA analysis was developed for the selective solid-phase extraction of irinotecan from various organic media. A specific capacity of 0.65 µmol•g−1 for the MIP was determined. The high specificity of this MIP was demonstrated by studying the retention behaviour of two related compounds, camptothecin and SN-38. This support was applied for the extraction of irinotecan from human serum samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecularly Imprinted Polymers in Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Anabolic Actions of the Regenerative Agent Enamel Matrix Derivative (EMD) in Oral Periosteal Fibroblasts and MG 63 Osteoblasts, Modulation by Nicotine and Glutathione in a Redox Environment
J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(1), 143-162; doi:10.3390/jfb3010143
Received: 19 October 2011 / Revised: 20 December 2011 / Accepted: 22 February 2012 / Published: 29 February 2012
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Abstract
Our study seeks to explore anabolic effects of a periodontal regenerative agent enamel matrix derivative (EMD). Its modulation by nicotine and the anti-oxidant glutathione (GSH) are investigated in human periosteal fibroblasts (HPF) and MG63 osteoblasts. Androgen biomarkers of oxidative stress and healing, resulting
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Our study seeks to explore anabolic effects of a periodontal regenerative agent enamel matrix derivative (EMD). Its modulation by nicotine and the anti-oxidant glutathione (GSH) are investigated in human periosteal fibroblasts (HPF) and MG63 osteoblasts. Androgen biomarkers of oxidative stress and healing, resulting from radiolabeled androgen substrates are assayed. This in vitro model simulates a redox environment relevant to the periodontal lesion. It aims to confirm the hypothesis that EMD is an effective regenerative agent in a typically redox environment of the periodontal lesion. Monolayer cultures of MG63 osteoblasts and HPF established in culture medium are incubated with androgen substrates, and optimal concentrations of EMD, nicotine and GSH, alone and in combination. EMD significantly enhances yields of 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) an effective bioactive metabolite, alone and in combination with GSH, to overcome oxidative effects of nicotine across cultures. The ‘in vitro’ findings of this study could be extrapolated to “in vivo” applications of EMD as an adjunctive regenerative therapeutic agent in an environment of chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. Increased yields of DHT implicated in matrix synthesis and direct antioxidant capacity, confirm the potential applications for enamel matrix derivative in periodontal regenerative procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials for Bone Substitutes)
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Open AccessCommunication Development of Ti-Coated Ferromagnetic Needle, Adaptable for Ablation Cancer Therapy by High-Frequency Induction Heating
J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(1), 163-172; doi:10.3390/jfb3010163
Received: 28 November 2011 / Revised: 1 March 2012 / Accepted: 2 March 2012 / Published: 6 March 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (327 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To develop a novel ablation therapy for human solid cancer, the heating properties of a ferromagnetic carbon steel rod and a prototype Ti-coated needle using this carbon steel rod, were investigated in several high-frequency outputs at 300 kHz. In the former, the heating
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To develop a novel ablation therapy for human solid cancer, the heating properties of a ferromagnetic carbon steel rod and a prototype Ti-coated needle using this carbon steel rod, were investigated in several high-frequency outputs at 300 kHz. In the former, the heating property was drastically different among the three inclination angles (θ = 0°, 45° and 90°) relative to the magnetic flux direction as a result of the shape magnetic anisotropy. However, the effect of the inclination angles was completely eliminated in the latter. It is considered that the complete non-oriented heating property relative to the magnetic flux direction allows the precise control of the ablation temperature during minimally invasive thermotherapy without a lead-wire connected to a fiber-optic thermometer. This newly designed Ti-coated device will be suitable for clinical use combined with its superior biocompatibility for ablation treatments using high-frequency induction heating. Full article
Open AccessCommunication Gas-Foamed Scaffold Gradients for Combinatorial Screening in 3D
J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(1), 173-182; doi:10.3390/jfb3010173
Received: 6 February 2012 / Revised: 28 February 2012 / Accepted: 1 March 2012 / Published: 7 March 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1059 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Current methods for screening cell-material interactions typically utilize a two-dimensional (2D) culture format where cells are cultured on flat surfaces. However, there is a need for combinatorial and high-throughput screening methods to systematically screen cell-biomaterial interactions in three-dimensional (3D) tissue scaffolds for tissue
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Current methods for screening cell-material interactions typically utilize a two-dimensional (2D) culture format where cells are cultured on flat surfaces. However, there is a need for combinatorial and high-throughput screening methods to systematically screen cell-biomaterial interactions in three-dimensional (3D) tissue scaffolds for tissue engineering. Previously, we developed a two-syringe pump approach for making 3D scaffold gradients for use in combinatorial screening of salt-leached scaffolds. Herein, we demonstrate that the two-syringe pump approach can also be used to create scaffold gradients using a gas-foaming approach. Macroporous foams prepared by a gas-foaming technique are commonly used for fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds due to their high interconnectivity and good mechanical properties. Gas-foamed scaffold gradient libraries were fabricated from two biodegradable tyrosine-derived polycarbonates: poly(desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine ethyl ester carbonate) (pDTEc) and poly(desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine octyl ester carbonate) (pDTOc). The composition of the libraries was assessed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and showed that pDTEc/pDTOc gas-foamed scaffold gradients could be repeatably fabricated. Scanning electron microscopy showed that scaffold morphology was similar between the pDTEc-rich ends and the pDTOc-rich ends of the gradient. These results introduce a method for fabricating gas-foamed polymer scaffold gradients that can be used for combinatorial screening of cell-material interactions in 3D. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Models for Investigating Intra-Stromal Migration of Corneal Keratocytes, Fibroblasts and Myofibroblasts
J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(1), 183-198; doi:10.3390/jfb3010183
Received: 27 January 2012 / Revised: 10 March 2012 / Accepted: 13 March 2012 / Published: 19 March 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2425 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Following laser vision correction, corneal keratocytes must repopulate areas of cell loss by migrating through the intact corneal stroma, and this can impact corneal shape and transparency. In this study, we evaluate 3D culture models for simulating this process in vitro. Buttons
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Following laser vision correction, corneal keratocytes must repopulate areas of cell loss by migrating through the intact corneal stroma, and this can impact corneal shape and transparency. In this study, we evaluate 3D culture models for simulating this process in vitro. Buttons (8 mm diameter) were first punched out of keratocyte populated compressed collagen matrices, exposed to a 3 mm diameter freeze injury, and cultured in serum-free media (basal media) or media supplemented with 10% FBS, TGFb1 or PDGF BB. Following freeze injury, a region of cell death was observed in the center of the constructs. Although cells readily migrated on top of the matrices to cover the wound area, a limited amount of cell migration was observed within the constructs. We next developed a novel “sandwich” model, which better mimics the native lamellar architecture of the cornea. Using this model, significant migration was observed under all conditions studied. In both models, cells in TGFb and 10% FBS developed stress fibers; whereas cells in PDGF were more dendritic. PDGF stimulated the most inter-lamellar migration in the sandwich construct. Overall, these models provide insights into the complex interplay between growth factors, cell mechanical phenotypes and the structural properties of the ECM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corneal Scarring: Wound Healing and Biomaterials)
Open AccessArticle Sustained Delivery of Chondroitinase ABC from Hydrogel System
J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(1), 199-208; doi:10.3390/jfb3010199
Received: 19 December 2011 / Revised: 27 February 2012 / Accepted: 13 March 2012 / Published: 19 March 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (567 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the injured spinal cord, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are the principal responsible of axon growth inhibition and they contribute to regenerative failure, promoting glial scar formation. Chondroitinase ABC (chABC) is known for being able to digest proteoglycans, thus degrading glial scar and
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In the injured spinal cord, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are the principal responsible of axon growth inhibition and they contribute to regenerative failure, promoting glial scar formation. Chondroitinase ABC (chABC) is known for being able to digest proteoglycans, thus degrading glial scar and favoring axonal regrowth. However, its classic administration is invasive, infection-prone and clinically problematic. An agarose-carbomer (AC1) hydrogel, already used in SCI repair strategies, was here investigated as a delivery system capable of an effective chABC administration: the material ability to include chABC within its pores and the possibility to be injected into the target tissue were firstly proved. Subsequently, release kinetic and the maintenance of enzymatic activity were positively assessed: AC1 hydrogel was thus confirmed to be a feasible tool for chABC delivery and a promising device for spinal cord injury topic repair strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Injectable Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Finite-Element Modeling of Viscoelastic Cells During High-Frequency Cyclic Strain
J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(1), 209-224; doi:10.3390/jfb3010209
Received: 22 January 2012 / Revised: 6 March 2012 / Accepted: 13 March 2012 / Published: 22 March 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (968 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mechanotransduction refers to the mechanisms by which cells sense and respond to local loads and forces. The process of mechanotransduction plays an important role both in maintaining tissue viability and in remodeling to repair damage; moreover, it may be involved in the initiation
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Mechanotransduction refers to the mechanisms by which cells sense and respond to local loads and forces. The process of mechanotransduction plays an important role both in maintaining tissue viability and in remodeling to repair damage; moreover, it may be involved in the initiation and progression of diseases such as osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. An understanding of the mechanisms by which cells respond to surrounding tissue matrices or artificial biomaterials is crucial in regenerative medicine and in influencing cellular differentiation. Recent studies have shown that some cells may be most sensitive to low-amplitude, high-frequency (i.e., 1–100 Hz) mechanical stimulation. Advances in finite-element modeling have made it possible to simulate high-frequency mechanical loading of cells. We have developed a viscoelastic finite-element model of an osteoblastic cell (including cytoskeletal actin stress fibers), attached to an elastomeric membrane undergoing cyclic isotropic radial strain with a peak value of 1,000 µstrain. The results indicate that cells experience significant stress and strain amplification when undergoing high-frequency strain, with peak values of cytoplasmic strain five times higher at 45 Hz than at 1 Hz, and peak Von Mises stress in the nucleus increased by a factor of two. Focal stress and strain amplification in cells undergoing high-frequency mechanical stimulation may play an important role in mechanotransduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanics of Cells in Context with Biomaterials)
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Review

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Open AccessReview A Path to Soluble Molecularly Imprinted Polymers
J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(1), 1-22; doi:10.3390/jfb3010001
Received: 5 October 2011 / Revised: 14 December 2011 / Accepted: 15 December 2011 / Published: 23 December 2011
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1701 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Molecular imprinting is a technique for making a selective binding site for a specific chemical. The technique involves building a polymeric scaffold of molecular complements containing the target molecule. Subsequent removal of the target leaves a cavity with a structural “memory” of the
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Molecular imprinting is a technique for making a selective binding site for a specific chemical. The technique involves building a polymeric scaffold of molecular complements containing the target molecule. Subsequent removal of the target leaves a cavity with a structural “memory” of the target. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) can be employed as selective adsorbents of specific molecules or molecular functional groups. In addition, sensors for specific molecules can be made using optical transduction through lumiphores residing in the imprinted site. We have found that the use of metal ions as chromophores can improve selectivity due to selective complex formation. The combination of molecular imprinting and spectroscopic selectivity can result in sensors that are highly sensitive and nearly immune to interferences. A weakness of conventional MIPs with regard to processing is the insolubility of crosslinked polymers. Traditional MIPs are prepared either as monoliths and ground into powders or are prepared in situ on a support. This limits the applicability of MIPs by imposing tedious or difficult processes for their inclusion in devices. The size of the particles hinders diffusion and slows response. These weaknesses could be avoided if a means were found to prepare individual macromolecules with crosslinked binding sites with soluble linear polymeric arms. This process has been made possible by controlled free radical polymerization techniques that can form pseudo-living polymers. Modern techniques of controlled free radical polymerization allow the preparation of block copolymers with potentially crosslinkable substituents in specific locations. The inclusion of crosslinkable mers proximate to the binding complex in the core of a star polymer allows the formation of molecularly imprinted macromolecules that are soluble and processable. Due to the much shorter distance for diffusion, the polymers exhibit rapid responses. This paper reviews the methods that have been employed for the trace determination of organophosphates in real world samples using MIPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecularly Imprinted Polymers in Biomedical Applications)
Open AccessReview Biophysical Properties of Lumbricus terrestris Erythrocruorin and Its Potential Use as a Red Blood Cell Substitute
J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(1), 49-60; doi:10.3390/jfb3010049
Received: 21 October 2011 / Revised: 9 December 2011 / Accepted: 24 December 2011 / Published: 6 January 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (295 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Previous generations of hemoglobin (Hb)-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) have been plagued by key biophysical limitations that result in severe side-effects once transfused in vivo, including protein instability, high heme oxidation rates, and nitric oxide (NO) scavenging. All of these problems emerge after
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Previous generations of hemoglobin (Hb)-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) have been plagued by key biophysical limitations that result in severe side-effects once transfused in vivo, including protein instability, high heme oxidation rates, and nitric oxide (NO) scavenging. All of these problems emerge after mammalian Hbs are removed from red blood cells (RBCs) and used for HBOC synthesis/formulation. Therefore, extracellular Hbs (erythrocruorins) from organisms which lack RBCs might serve as better HBOCs. This review focuses on the erythrocruorin of Lumbricus terrestris (LtEc), which has been shown to be extremely stable, resistant to oxidation, and may interact with NO differently than mammalian Hbs. All of these beneficial properties show that LtEc is a promising new HBOC which warrants further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blood Substitutes)
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Open AccessReview Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of a New Polymeric Conjugate and Nanocarrier with Osteotropic Properties
J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(1), 79-99; doi:10.3390/jfb3010079
Received: 15 December 2011 / Revised: 10 January 2012 / Accepted: 11 January 2012 / Published: 19 January 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1271 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bone-seeking (osteotropic) drug delivery systems (ODDS) represent an interesting solution for targeting different types of drugs to the bones. In particular, anticancer and antibacterial agents could take advantage of such therapeutic strategy. We have recently developed an innovative approach to this aim: a
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Bone-seeking (osteotropic) drug delivery systems (ODDS) represent an interesting solution for targeting different types of drugs to the bones. In particular, anticancer and antibacterial agents could take advantage of such therapeutic strategy. We have recently developed an innovative approach to this aim: a new osteotropic biomaterial was prepared, based on the conjugation of a poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) with the bisphosphonate drug alendronate (PLGA-ALE); its hemo- and cytocompatibility were verified. Starting with this copolymer, an osteotropic nanoparticle system (NP) was produced for the targeted delivery of antineoplastic drugs to osteolytic bone metastases; in particular, doxorubicin was tested as a model drug. The in vitro and in vivo results of the new ODDS are validated in this article. All the experimental data confirmed that the drug retained its activity after loading in the PLGA-ALE NP; they can be thus considered a new promising strategy for active targeting of drugs to bone tissues in different pathological situations. Full article

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