J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(1), 209-224; doi:10.3390/jfb3010209
Article

Finite-Element Modeling of Viscoelastic Cells During High-Frequency Cyclic Strain

1 Imaging Research Laboratory, Robarts Research Institute, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5K8, Canada 2 Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5C1, Canada 3 Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5C1, Canada 4 Department of Surgery, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 4V2, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 January 2012; in revised form: 6 March 2012 / Accepted: 13 March 2012 / Published: 22 March 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanics of Cells in Context with Biomaterials)
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Abstract: Mechanotransduction refers to the mechanisms by which cells sense and respond to local loads and forces. The process of mechanotransduction plays an important role both in maintaining tissue viability and in remodeling to repair damage; moreover, it may be involved in the initiation and progression of diseases such as osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. An understanding of the mechanisms by which cells respond to surrounding tissue matrices or artificial biomaterials is crucial in regenerative medicine and in influencing cellular differentiation. Recent studies have shown that some cells may be most sensitive to low-amplitude, high-frequency (i.e., 1–100 Hz) mechanical stimulation. Advances in finite-element modeling have made it possible to simulate high-frequency mechanical loading of cells. We have developed a viscoelastic finite-element model of an osteoblastic cell (including cytoskeletal actin stress fibers), attached to an elastomeric membrane undergoing cyclic isotropic radial strain with a peak value of 1,000 µstrain. The results indicate that cells experience significant stress and strain amplification when undergoing high-frequency strain, with peak values of cytoplasmic strain five times higher at 45 Hz than at 1 Hz, and peak Von Mises stress in the nucleus increased by a factor of two. Focal stress and strain amplification in cells undergoing high-frequency mechanical stimulation may play an important role in mechanotransduction.
Keywords: mechanotransduction; finite-element modeling; single-cell model; cyclic strain; viscoelasticity; cytoskeleton; stress fibers

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MDPI and ACS Style

Milner, J.S.; Grol, M.W.; Beaucage, K.L.; Dixon, S.J.; Holdsworth, D.W. Finite-Element Modeling of Viscoelastic Cells During High-Frequency Cyclic Strain. J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3, 209-224.

AMA Style

Milner JS, Grol MW, Beaucage KL, Dixon SJ, Holdsworth DW. Finite-Element Modeling of Viscoelastic Cells During High-Frequency Cyclic Strain. Journal of Functional Biomaterials. 2012; 3(1):209-224.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Milner, Jaques S.; Grol, Matthew W.; Beaucage, Kim L.; Dixon, S. Jeffrey; Holdsworth, David W. 2012. "Finite-Element Modeling of Viscoelastic Cells During High-Frequency Cyclic Strain." J. Funct. Biomater. 3, no. 1: 209-224.

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