Special Issue "Biomaterials for Bone Substitutes"

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A special issue of Journal of Functional Biomaterials (ISSN 2079-4983).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2011)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Rodolfo Quarto (Website)

Centro Biotecnologie Avanzate, Genova, Italy, Department of Experimental Medicine Università di Genova, Italy
Interests: bone stem cells; biomaterials; tissue engineering; bioreactors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biomaterial science holds the promise to solve several problems related to tissue and organ replacement. Several approaches in regenerative medicine, of which tissue engineering is an important part, involve stem cells loaded onto properly designed biomaterials, with the aim of inducing cell differentiation along a pre-defined pathway and regenerating the target tissue according to physiological cues. In clinical practice bone regeneration is a particular challenge, as the demand is increasing due to an ageing population and a high prevalence of osteoporosis. In addition, weight-bearing issues also require consideration in bone biomaterial applications.  One of the most intriguing concepts is to design materials able to mimic specific microenvironments, possibly priming the natural processes of cell-driven tissue regeneration. The ideal scaffold should therefore transmit molecular signals at the right time and in the right dose. Scaffold chemical composition thus becomes of crucial importance, but other essential parameters of the scaffold design have to be considered, since they may profoundly influence cell fate both in vitro and in vivo. Indeed, to improve the efficiency of biomaterials aimed at tissue regeneration, the design of the overall architecture of the scaffold, including macro-, micro- and nanostructure, takes on major significance and remains a multi-disciplinary challenge.

Prof. Dr. C. James Kirkpatrick,
Prof. Dr. Rodolfo Quarto
Guest Editors

Keywords

  • functional biomaterials
  • scaffolds
  • microenvironment
  • biomimetic cues
  • stem cells
  • bone regeneration

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Anabolic Actions of the Regenerative Agent Enamel Matrix Derivative (EMD) in Oral Periosteal Fibroblasts and MG 63 Osteoblasts, Modulation by Nicotine and Glutathione in a Redox Environment
J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(1), 143-162; doi:10.3390/jfb3010143
Received: 19 October 2011 / Revised: 20 December 2011 / Accepted: 22 February 2012 / Published: 29 February 2012
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Abstract
Our study seeks to explore anabolic effects of a periodontal regenerative agent enamel matrix derivative (EMD). Its modulation by nicotine and the anti-oxidant glutathione (GSH) are investigated in human periosteal fibroblasts (HPF) and MG63 osteoblasts. Androgen biomarkers of oxidative stress and healing, [...] Read more.
Our study seeks to explore anabolic effects of a periodontal regenerative agent enamel matrix derivative (EMD). Its modulation by nicotine and the anti-oxidant glutathione (GSH) are investigated in human periosteal fibroblasts (HPF) and MG63 osteoblasts. Androgen biomarkers of oxidative stress and healing, resulting from radiolabeled androgen substrates are assayed. This in vitro model simulates a redox environment relevant to the periodontal lesion. It aims to confirm the hypothesis that EMD is an effective regenerative agent in a typically redox environment of the periodontal lesion. Monolayer cultures of MG63 osteoblasts and HPF established in culture medium are incubated with androgen substrates, and optimal concentrations of EMD, nicotine and GSH, alone and in combination. EMD significantly enhances yields of 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) an effective bioactive metabolite, alone and in combination with GSH, to overcome oxidative effects of nicotine across cultures. The ‘in vitro’ findings of this study could be extrapolated to “in vivo” applications of EMD as an adjunctive regenerative therapeutic agent in an environment of chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. Increased yields of DHT implicated in matrix synthesis and direct antioxidant capacity, confirm the potential applications for enamel matrix derivative in periodontal regenerative procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials for Bone Substitutes)
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Open AccessArticle Bioactive Polymeric Composites for Tooth Mineral Regeneration: Physicochemical and Cellular Aspects
J. Funct. Biomater. 2011, 2(3), 271-307; doi:10.3390/jfb2030271
Received: 4 August 2011 / Revised: 31 August 2011 / Accepted: 7 September 2011 / Published: 14 September 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1513 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Our studies of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)-based dental materials are focused on the design of bioactive, non-degradable, biocompatible, polymeric composites derived from acrylic monomer systems and ACP by photochemical or chemically activated polymerization. Their intended uses include remineralizing bases/liners, orthodontic adhesives and/or [...] Read more.
Our studies of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)-based dental materials are focused on the design of bioactive, non-degradable, biocompatible, polymeric composites derived from acrylic monomer systems and ACP by photochemical or chemically activated polymerization. Their intended uses include remineralizing bases/liners, orthodontic adhesives and/or endodontic sealers. The bioactivity of these materials originates from the propensity of ACP, once exposed to oral fluids, to release Ca and PO4 ions (building blocks of tooth and bone mineral) in a sustained manner while spontaneously converting to thermodynamically stable apatite. As a result of ACP’s bioactivity, local Ca- and PO4-enriched environments are created with supersaturation conditions favorable for the regeneration of tooth mineral lost to decay or wear. Besides its applicative purpose, our research also seeks to expand the fundamental knowledge base of structure-composition-property relationships existing in these complex systems and identify the mechanisms that govern filler/polymer and composite/tooth interfacial phenomena. In addition to an extensive physicochemical evaluation, we also assess the leachability of the unreacted monomers and in vitro cellular responses to these types of dental materials. The systematic physicochemical and cellular assessments presented in this study typically provide model materials suitable for further animal and/or clinical testing. In addition to their potential dental clinical value, these studies suggest the future development of calcium phosphate-based biomaterials based on composite materials derived from biodegradable polymers and ACP, and designed primarily for general bone tissue regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials for Bone Substitutes)

Review

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Open AccessReview Calcium Orthophosphates as Bioceramics: State of the Art
J. Funct. Biomater. 2010, 1(1), 22-107; doi:10.3390/jfb1010022
Received: 21 October 2010 / Revised: 16 November 2010 / Accepted: 25 November 2010 / Published: 30 November 2010
Cited by 48 | PDF Full-text (1437 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the late 1960s, much interest was raised in regard to biomedical applications of various ceramic materials. A little bit later, such materials were named bioceramics. This review is limited to bioceramics prepared from calcium orthophosphates only, which belong to the categories [...] Read more.
In the late 1960s, much interest was raised in regard to biomedical applications of various ceramic materials. A little bit later, such materials were named bioceramics. This review is limited to bioceramics prepared from calcium orthophosphates only, which belong to the categories of bioactive and bioresorbable compounds. There have been a number of important advances in this field during the past 30–40 years. Namely, by structural and compositional control, it became possible to choose whether calcium orthophosphate bioceramics were biologically stable once incorporated within the skeletal structure or whether they were resorbed over time. At the turn of the millennium, a new concept of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics—which is able to promote regeneration of bones—was developed. Presently, calcium orthophosphate bioceramics are available in the form of particulates, blocks, cements, coatings, customized designs for specific applications and as injectable composites in a polymer carrier. Current biomedical applications include artificial replacements for hips, knees, teeth, tendons and ligaments, as well as repair for periodontal disease, maxillofacial reconstruction, augmentation and stabilization of the jawbone, spinal fusion and bone fillers after tumor surgery. Exploratory studies demonstrate potential applications of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics as scaffolds, drug delivery systems, as well as carriers of growth factors, bioactive peptides and/or various types of cells for tissue engineering purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials for Bone Substitutes)

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