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Gas-Foamed Scaffold Gradients for Combinatorial Screening in 3D
Polymers Division, National Institute of Standards & Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, USA
Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India
New Jersey Center for Biomaterials, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 February 2012; in revised form: 28 February 2012 / Accepted: 1 March 2012 / Published: 7 March 2012
Abstract: Current methods for screening cell-material interactions typically utilize a two-dimensional (2D) culture format where cells are cultured on flat surfaces. However, there is a need for combinatorial and high-throughput screening methods to systematically screen cell-biomaterial interactions in three-dimensional (3D) tissue scaffolds for tissue engineering. Previously, we developed a two-syringe pump approach for making 3D scaffold gradients for use in combinatorial screening of salt-leached scaffolds. Herein, we demonstrate that the two-syringe pump approach can also be used to create scaffold gradients using a gas-foaming approach. Macroporous foams prepared by a gas-foaming technique are commonly used for fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds due to their high interconnectivity and good mechanical properties. Gas-foamed scaffold gradient libraries were fabricated from two biodegradable tyrosine-derived polycarbonates: poly(desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine ethyl ester carbonate) (pDTEc) and poly(desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine octyl ester carbonate) (pDTOc). The composition of the libraries was assessed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and showed that pDTEc/pDTOc gas-foamed scaffold gradients could be repeatably fabricated. Scanning electron microscopy showed that scaffold morphology was similar between the pDTEc-rich ends and the pDTOc-rich ends of the gradient. These results introduce a method for fabricating gas-foamed polymer scaffold gradients that can be used for combinatorial screening of cell-material interactions in 3D.
Keywords: combinatorial screening; polymer; scaffold; tissue engineering
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MDPI and ACS Style
Chatterjee, K.; Kraigsley, A.M.; Bolikal, D.; Kohn, J.; Simon, C.G., Jr. Gas-Foamed Scaffold Gradients for Combinatorial Screening in 3D. J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3, 173-182.
Chatterjee K, Kraigsley AM, Bolikal D, Kohn J, Simon CG, Jr. Gas-Foamed Scaffold Gradients for Combinatorial Screening in 3D. Journal of Functional Biomaterials. 2012; 3(1):173-182.
Chatterjee, Kaushik; Kraigsley, Alison M.; Bolikal, Durgadas; Kohn, Joachim; Simon, Carl G., Jr. 2012. "Gas-Foamed Scaffold Gradients for Combinatorial Screening in 3D." J. Funct. Biomater. 3, no. 1: 173-182.