Next Article in Journal
Experimental Models for Investigating Intra-Stromal Migration of Corneal Keratocytes, Fibroblasts and Myofibroblasts
Previous Article in Journal
Development of Ti-Coated Ferromagnetic Needle, Adaptable for Ablation Cancer Therapy by High-Frequency Induction Heating
J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(1), 173-182; doi:10.3390/jfb3010173
Communication

Gas-Foamed Scaffold Gradients for Combinatorial Screening in 3D

1,2
,
1
,
3
,
3
 and
Jr. 1,*
1 Polymers Division, National Institute of Standards & Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, USA 2 Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India 3 New Jersey Center for Biomaterials, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 February 2012 / Revised: 28 February 2012 / Accepted: 1 March 2012 / Published: 7 March 2012
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1059 KB, uploaded 7 March 2012]   |  

Abstract

Current methods for screening cell-material interactions typically utilize a two-dimensional (2D) culture format where cells are cultured on flat surfaces. However, there is a need for combinatorial and high-throughput screening methods to systematically screen cell-biomaterial interactions in three-dimensional (3D) tissue scaffolds for tissue engineering. Previously, we developed a two-syringe pump approach for making 3D scaffold gradients for use in combinatorial screening of salt-leached scaffolds. Herein, we demonstrate that the two-syringe pump approach can also be used to create scaffold gradients using a gas-foaming approach. Macroporous foams prepared by a gas-foaming technique are commonly used for fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds due to their high interconnectivity and good mechanical properties. Gas-foamed scaffold gradient libraries were fabricated from two biodegradable tyrosine-derived polycarbonates: poly(desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine ethyl ester carbonate) (pDTEc) and poly(desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine octyl ester carbonate) (pDTOc). The composition of the libraries was assessed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and showed that pDTEc/pDTOc gas-foamed scaffold gradients could be repeatably fabricated. Scanning electron microscopy showed that scaffold morphology was similar between the pDTEc-rich ends and the pDTOc-rich ends of the gradient. These results introduce a method for fabricating gas-foamed polymer scaffold gradients that can be used for combinatorial screening of cell-material interactions in 3D.
Keywords: combinatorial screening; polymer; scaffold; tissue engineering combinatorial screening; polymer; scaffold; tissue engineering
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote |
RIS
MDPI and ACS Style

Chatterjee, K.; Kraigsley, A.M.; Bolikal, D.; Kohn, J.; Simon, C.G., Jr. Gas-Foamed Scaffold Gradients for Combinatorial Screening in 3D. J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3, 173-182.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Comments

[Return to top]
J. Funct. Biomater. EISSN 2079-4983 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert