Special Issue "Molecularly Imprinted Polymers in Biomedical Applications"

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A special issue of Journal of Functional Biomaterials (ISSN 2079-4983).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (29 February 2012)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Carmen Alvarez-Lorenzo

Departamento de Farmacia y Tecnología Farmacéutica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 981563100
Fax: +34 981547148
Interests: stimuli-sensitive materials; biomimetic materials; molecularly imprinted drug delivery systems; polymeric micelles; combination products; drug-eluting medical devices
Guest Editor
Dr. Angel Concheiro

Departamento de Farmacia y Tecnología Farmacéutica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: stimuli-sensitive materials; biomimetic materials; molecularly imprinted drug delivery systems; polymeric micelles; combination products; drug-eluting medical devices; oral delivery systems; cell scaffolds

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Polymer networks endowed with the ability to recognize specific molecules have an enormous interest in the biomedical field. The application of the molecular imprinting technology to the design of tailored receptors for drugs, bioactive molecules, therapeutic peptides and biomacrolecules is opening novel, amazing possibilities. Advanced drug delivery systems able to precisely regulate the release through rate-programmed, activation-modulated, or feedback-regulated mechanisms are good examples of the potential of the molecularly imprinted polymers in therapeutics. The versatile formats and compositions of the imprinted networks make them also suitable for the removal of toxic substances from the body, the detection and analysis of biological molecules and pathogen agents, and the diagnosis of illnesses. Polymers imprinted for enzymes and microorganisms have already found a niche in biotechnology. New applications in the biomedical field can be forecast as molecularly imprinted polymers able to perform their functions in the biological environment are being developed and optimized.

Dr. Carmen Alvarez-Lorenzo
Dr. Angel Concheiro
Guest Editors

Keywords

  • molecular imprinting
  • drug delivery
  • affinity-based controlled release
  • stimuli-responsive imprinted networks
  • sensors for medical applications
  • MIPs for biotechnology
  • imprinted traps
  • tailored receptors
  • protein-imprinted networks
  • microbe-imprinted networks

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Soft Polymers for Building up Small and Smallest Blood Supplying Systems by Stereolithography
J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(2), 257-268; doi:10.3390/jfb3020257
Received: 16 February 2012 / Revised: 16 March 2012 / Accepted: 20 March 2012 / Published: 29 March 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (541 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Synthesis of a homologous series of photo-polymerizable α,w-polytetrahydrofuranether-diacrylate (PTHF-DA) resins is described with characterization by NMR, GPC, DSC, soaking and rheometrical measurements. The curing speeds of the resins are determined under UV light exposure. Young’s modulus and tensile strength of fully cured resins
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Synthesis of a homologous series of photo-polymerizable α,w-polytetrahydrofuranether-diacrylate (PTHF-DA) resins is described with characterization by NMR, GPC, DSC, soaking and rheometrical measurements. The curing speeds of the resins are determined under UV light exposure. Young’s modulus and tensile strength of fully cured resins show flexible to soft material attributes dependent on the molar mass of the used linear PTHF-diacrylates. Structuring the materials by stereo lithography (SL) and multiphoton polymerization (MPP) leads to tubes and bifurcated tube systems with a diameter smaller than 2 mm aimed at small to smallest supplying systems with capillary dimensions. WST-1 biocompatibility tests ofm polymer extracts show nontoxic characteristics of the adapted polymers after a washing process. Some polymers show shape memory effect (SME). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecularly Imprinted Polymers in Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Quercetin-Imprinted Nanospheres as Novel Drug Delivery Devices
J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(2), 269-282; doi:10.3390/jfb3020269
Received: 29 February 2012 / Revised: 21 March 2012 / Accepted: 22 March 2012 / Published: 29 March 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (456 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, molecularly imprinted nanospheres for controlled/sustained release of quercetin were synthesized employing methacrylic acid and ethylene glycoldymethacrylate as functional monomer and crosslinking agent, respectively. One pot precipitation polymerization was chosen as polymerization technique to obtain nanosized materials with spherical shape. Morphological
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In this work, molecularly imprinted nanospheres for controlled/sustained release of quercetin were synthesized employing methacrylic acid and ethylene glycoldymethacrylate as functional monomer and crosslinking agent, respectively. One pot precipitation polymerization was chosen as polymerization technique to obtain nanosized materials with spherical shape. Morphological and hydrophilic properties by scanning electron microscopy and water content measurements were determined, and recognition and selectivity properties of the imprinted materials were tested using the template quercetin and its structural analogue, the flavonoid catechin. Finally, the applicability of the obtained materials as drug delivery devices was evaluated by performing in vitro release studies in plasma simulating fluids and cytotoxicity testson HeLa cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecularly Imprinted Polymers in Biomedical Applications)
Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Evaluation of a Molecularly Imprinted Polymer for Selective Solid-Phase Extraction of Irinotecan from Human Serum Samples
J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(1), 131-142; doi:10.3390/jfb3010131
Received: 12 January 2012 / Revised: 11 February 2012 / Accepted: 11 February 2012 / Published: 20 February 2012
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Abstract
A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was synthesized by non-covalent imprinting polymerization using irinotecan as template. Methacrylic acid and 4-vinylpyridine were selected as functional monomers. An optimized procedure coupled to LC-PDA analysis was developed for the selective solid-phase extraction of irinotecan from various organic
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A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was synthesized by non-covalent imprinting polymerization using irinotecan as template. Methacrylic acid and 4-vinylpyridine were selected as functional monomers. An optimized procedure coupled to LC-PDA analysis was developed for the selective solid-phase extraction of irinotecan from various organic media. A specific capacity of 0.65 µmol•g−1 for the MIP was determined. The high specificity of this MIP was demonstrated by studying the retention behaviour of two related compounds, camptothecin and SN-38. This support was applied for the extraction of irinotecan from human serum samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecularly Imprinted Polymers in Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Ionic and Polyampholyte N-Isopropylacrylamide-Based Hydrogels Prepared in the Presence of Imprinting Ligands: Stimuli-Responsiveness and Adsorption/Release Properties
J. Funct. Biomater. 2011, 2(4), 373-390; doi:10.3390/jfb2040373
Received: 8 November 2011 / Revised: 8 December 2011 / Accepted: 9 December 2011 / Published: 15 December 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (310 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The conformation of the imprinted pockets in stimulus-responsive networks can be notably altered when the stimulus causes a volume phase transition. Such a tunable affinity for the template molecule finds interesting applications in the biomedical and drug delivery fields. Nevertheless, the effect that
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The conformation of the imprinted pockets in stimulus-responsive networks can be notably altered when the stimulus causes a volume phase transition. Such a tunable affinity for the template molecule finds interesting applications in the biomedical and drug delivery fields. Nevertheless, the effect that the binding of the template causes on the stimuli-responsiveness of the network has barely been evaluated. In this work, the effect of two ionic drugs used as templates, namely propranolol hydrochloride and ibuprofen sodium, on the responsiveness of N-isopropylacrylamide-based hydrogels copolymerized with acrylic acid (AAc) and N-(3-aminopropyl) methacrylamide (APMA) and on their ability to rebind and to control the release of the template was evaluated. The degree of swelling and, in some cases, energetics (HS-DSC) of the transitions were monitored as a function of temperature, pH, and concentration of drug. Marked decrease in the transition temperature of the hydrogels, accompanied by notable changes in the transition width, was observed in physiological NaCl solutions and after the binding of the drug molecules, which reveals relevant changes in the domain structure of the hydrogels as the charged groups are shielded. The ability of the hydrogels to rebind propranolol or ibuprofen was quantified at both 4 and 37 °C and at two different drug concentrations, in the range of those that cause major changes in the network structure. Noticeable differences between hydrogels bearing AAc or APMA and between imprinted and non-imprinted networks were also observed during the release tests in NaCl solutions of various concentrations. Overall, the results obtained evidence the remarkable effect of the template molecules on the responsiveness of intelligent imprinted hydrogels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecularly Imprinted Polymers in Biomedical Applications)

Review

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Open AccessReview A Path to Soluble Molecularly Imprinted Polymers
J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(1), 1-22; doi:10.3390/jfb3010001
Received: 5 October 2011 / Revised: 14 December 2011 / Accepted: 15 December 2011 / Published: 23 December 2011
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1701 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Molecular imprinting is a technique for making a selective binding site for a specific chemical. The technique involves building a polymeric scaffold of molecular complements containing the target molecule. Subsequent removal of the target leaves a cavity with a structural “memory” of the
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Molecular imprinting is a technique for making a selective binding site for a specific chemical. The technique involves building a polymeric scaffold of molecular complements containing the target molecule. Subsequent removal of the target leaves a cavity with a structural “memory” of the target. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) can be employed as selective adsorbents of specific molecules or molecular functional groups. In addition, sensors for specific molecules can be made using optical transduction through lumiphores residing in the imprinted site. We have found that the use of metal ions as chromophores can improve selectivity due to selective complex formation. The combination of molecular imprinting and spectroscopic selectivity can result in sensors that are highly sensitive and nearly immune to interferences. A weakness of conventional MIPs with regard to processing is the insolubility of crosslinked polymers. Traditional MIPs are prepared either as monoliths and ground into powders or are prepared in situ on a support. This limits the applicability of MIPs by imposing tedious or difficult processes for their inclusion in devices. The size of the particles hinders diffusion and slows response. These weaknesses could be avoided if a means were found to prepare individual macromolecules with crosslinked binding sites with soluble linear polymeric arms. This process has been made possible by controlled free radical polymerization techniques that can form pseudo-living polymers. Modern techniques of controlled free radical polymerization allow the preparation of block copolymers with potentially crosslinkable substituents in specific locations. The inclusion of crosslinkable mers proximate to the binding complex in the core of a star polymer allows the formation of molecularly imprinted macromolecules that are soluble and processable. Due to the much shorter distance for diffusion, the polymers exhibit rapid responses. This paper reviews the methods that have been employed for the trace determination of organophosphates in real world samples using MIPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecularly Imprinted Polymers in Biomedical Applications)

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