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Nutrients, Volume 5, Issue 3 (March 2013), Pages 624-1023

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Selenoprotein-Transgenic Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
Nutrients 2013, 5(3), 624-636; doi:10.3390/nu5030624
Received: 29 December 2012 / Revised: 4 February 2013 / Accepted: 13 February 2013 / Published: 26 February 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (543 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Selenium (Se) deficiency is associated with the occurrence of many diseases. However, excessive Se supplementation, especially with inorganic Se, can result in toxicity. Selenoproteins are the major forms of Se in vivo to exert its biological function. Expression of those selenoproteins, especially [...] Read more.
Selenium (Se) deficiency is associated with the occurrence of many diseases. However, excessive Se supplementation, especially with inorganic Se, can result in toxicity. Selenoproteins are the major forms of Se in vivo to exert its biological function. Expression of those selenoproteins, especially with the application of a newly developed system, is thus very important for studying the mechanism of Se in nutrition. The use of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (C. reinhardtii) as a biological vector to express an heterogeneous protein is still at the initial stages of development. In order to investigate the possibility of using this system to express selenoproteins, human 15-KDa selenoprotein (Sep15), a small but widely distributed selenoprotein in mammals, was chosen for the expression platform test. Apart from the wild-type human Sep15 gene fragment, two Sep15 recombinants were constructed containing Sep15 open reading frame (ORF) and the selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element from either human Sep15 or C. reinhardtii selenoprotein W1, a highly expressed selenoprotein in this alga. Those Sep15-containing plasmids were transformed into C. reinhardtii CC-849 cells. Results showed that Sep15 fragments were successfully inserted into the nuclear genome and expressed Sep15 protein in the cells. The transgenic and wild-type algae demonstrated similar growth curves in low Se culture medium. To our knowledge, this is the first report on expressing human selenoprotein in green alga. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Selenium and Health)
Open AccessArticle Naringin Improves Diet-Induced Cardiovascular Dysfunction and Obesity in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats
Nutrients 2013, 5(3), 637-650; doi:10.3390/nu5030637
Received: 4 January 2013 / Revised: 16 February 2013 / Accepted: 21 February 2013 / Published: 27 February 2013
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (4112 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and fatty liver, together termed metabolic syndrome, are key risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Chronic feeding of a diet high in saturated fats and simple sugars, such as fructose and glucose, induces these changes in rats. Naturally occurring [...] Read more.
Obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and fatty liver, together termed metabolic syndrome, are key risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Chronic feeding of a diet high in saturated fats and simple sugars, such as fructose and glucose, induces these changes in rats. Naturally occurring compounds could be a cost-effective intervention to reverse these changes. Flavonoids are ubiquitous secondary plant metabolites; naringin gives the bitter taste to grapefruit. This study has evaluated the effect of naringin on diet-induced obesity and cardiovascular dysfunction in high carbohydrate, high fat-fed rats. These rats developed increased body weight, glucose intolerance, increased plasma lipid concentrations, hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis, liver inflammation and steatosis with compromised mitochondrial respiratory chain activity. Dietary supplementation with naringin (approximately 100 mg/kg/day) improved glucose intolerance and liver mitochondrial dysfunction, lowered plasma lipid concentrations and improved the structure and function of the heart and liver without decreasing total body weight. Naringin normalised systolic blood pressure and improved vascular dysfunction and ventricular diastolic dysfunction in high carbohydrate, high fat-fed rats. These beneficial effects of naringin may be mediated by reduced inflammatory cell infiltration, reduced oxidative stress, lowered plasma lipid concentrations and improved liver mitochondrial function in rats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Cardiovascular Diseases)
Open AccessArticle Extracts, Anthocyanins and Procyanidins from Aronia melanocarpa as Radical Scavengers and Enzyme Inhibitors
Nutrients 2013, 5(3), 663-678; doi:10.3390/nu5030663
Received: 15 January 2013 / Revised: 2 February 2013 / Accepted: 15 February 2013 / Published: 4 March 2013
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (300 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Extracts, subfractions, isolated anthocyanins and isolated procyanidins B2, B5 and C1 from the berries and bark of Aronia melanocarpa were investigated for their antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities. Four different bioassays were used, namely scavenging of the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, inhibition of [...] Read more.
Extracts, subfractions, isolated anthocyanins and isolated procyanidins B2, B5 and C1 from the berries and bark of Aronia melanocarpa were investigated for their antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities. Four different bioassays were used, namely scavenging of the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, inhibition of 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO), inhibition of xanthine oxidase (XO) and inhibition of α-glucosidase. Among the anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-arabinoside possessed the strongest and cyanidin 3-xyloside the weakest radical scavenging and enzyme inhibitory activity. These effects seem to be influenced by the sugar units linked to the anthocyanidin. Subfractions enriched in procyanidins were found to be potent α-glucosidase inhibitors; they possessed high radical scavenging properties, strong inhibitory activity towards 15-LO and moderate inhibitory activity towards XO. Trimeric procyanidin C1 showed higher activity in the biological assays compared to the dimeric procyanidins B2 and B5. This study suggests that different polyphenolic compounds of A. melanocarpa can have beneficial effects in reducing blood glucose levels due to inhibition of α-glucosidase and may have a potential to alleviate oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Daily Dietary Selenium Intake in a High Selenium Area of Enshi, China
Nutrients 2013, 5(3), 700-710; doi:10.3390/nu5030700
Received: 4 January 2013 / Revised: 31 January 2013 / Accepted: 4 February 2013 / Published: 5 March 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (436 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Enshi is a high selenium (Se) region in Hubei, China, where human selenosis was observed between 1958 and 1963. This study investigated the daily dietary Se intake of residents in Shadi, a town located 72 km northeast of Enshi City, to assess [...] Read more.
Enshi is a high selenium (Se) region in Hubei, China, where human selenosis was observed between 1958 and 1963. This study investigated the daily dietary Se intake of residents in Shadi, a town located 72 km northeast of Enshi City, to assess the risk of human selenosis in the high Se area. Foods consumed typically by the local residents and their hair samples were analyzed for total Se concentration. Concentrations of Se in different diet categories were as follows: cereals: 0.96 ± 0.90 mg kg−1 DW in rice and 0.43 ± 0.55 mg kg−1 DW in corn; tuber: 0.28 ± 0.56 mg kg−1 in potato and 0.36 ± 0.12 mg kg−1 in sweet potato; vegetables: ranging from 0.23 ± 1.00 mg kg−1 in carrot to 1.57 ± 1.06 mg kg−1 in kidney bean; animal proteins: 1.99 ± 1.11 mg kg−1 in chicken and egg. Based on the food Se concentrations and the daily per-capita consumption, the estimated daily Se intake in Shadi was 550 ± 307 µg per capita. Moreover, the Se concentrations in the hairs of local adult residents were 3.13 ± 1.91 mg kg−1 (n = 122) and 2.21 ± 1.14 mg kg−1 (n = 122) for females and males, respectively, suggesting that females might be exposed to higher levels of Se from daily cooking. Although there was no human selenosis occurrence in recent years, the high level of the daily Se intake suggested that the potential risk of selenosis for local residents, especially females, might be a matter of concern. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Selenium and Health)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Antioxidants and B-Group Vitamins on Risk of Infections in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Nutrients 2013, 5(3), 711-724; doi:10.3390/nu5030711
Received: 6 December 2012 / Revised: 14 January 2013 / Accepted: 25 January 2013 / Published: 5 March 2013
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Abstract
Previous studies have revealed that diabetic patients have a decline in immunity and an increased risk of infections, and this may be associated with poor micronutrient status. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of dietary supplements on risk [...] Read more.
Previous studies have revealed that diabetic patients have a decline in immunity and an increased risk of infections, and this may be associated with poor micronutrient status. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of dietary supplements on risk of infection in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. One hundred patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly assigned to receive an oral dose of daily B-group vitamins and antioxidant vitamins (n = 50) or an identical placebo (n = 50) daily for 90 days. Patients had baseline, three and 12 month assessment for nutritional status, fruits and vegetables intake, physical activity and self-reported infections. Supplementation with antioxidants and B-group vitamins significantly increased the plasma concentration of vitamin E and folate and reduced homocysteine in the intervention group (p-values were 0.006, 0.001 and 0.657, respectively). The number of infections reported by the treatment group after three months of supplements was less than that reported by the placebo group, 9 (27%) vs. 15 (36%) (p = 0.623). Corresponding numbers of infections at 12 months were 25 (67.5%) and 27 (56.3%), respectively (p = 0.488). Up to 90% of the diabetic patients were either overweight or obese with a sedentary life style, and their body weight increased further during three months of follow up. The study showed that multivitamin supplements improved vitamin blood concentrations; however, this did not reduce the number of infections in diabetic patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Infectious Diseases)
Open AccessArticle Selenium for the Prevention of Cutaneous Melanoma
Nutrients 2013, 5(3), 725-749; doi:10.3390/nu5030725
Received: 13 December 2012 / Revised: 17 February 2013 / Accepted: 18 February 2013 / Published: 7 March 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (572 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The role of selenium (Se) supplementation in cancer prevention is controversial; effects often depend on the nutritional status of the subject and on the chemical form in which Se is provided. We used a combination of in vitro and in vivo models [...] Read more.
The role of selenium (Se) supplementation in cancer prevention is controversial; effects often depend on the nutritional status of the subject and on the chemical form in which Se is provided. We used a combination of in vitro and in vivo models to study two unique therapeutic windows for intervention in the process of cutaneous melanomagenisis, and to examine the utility of two different chemical forms of Se for prevention and treatment of melanoma. We studied the effects of Se in vitro on UV-induced oxidative stress in melanocytes, and on apoptosis and cell cycle progression in melanoma cells. In vivo, we used the HGF transgenic mouse model of UV-induced melanoma to demonstrate that topical treatment with l-selenomethionine results in a significant delay in the time required for UV-induced melanoma development, but also increases the rate of growth of those tumors once they appear. In a second mouse model, we found that oral administration of high dose methylseleninic acid significantly decreases the size of human melanoma xenografts. Our findings suggest that modestly elevation of selenium levels in the skin might risk acceleration of growth of incipient tumors. Additionally, certain Se compounds administered at very high doses could have utility for the treatment of fully-malignant tumors or prevention of recurrence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Selenium and Health)
Open AccessArticle The Relationship between Lutein and Zeaxanthin Status and Body Fat
Nutrients 2013, 5(3), 750-757; doi:10.3390/nu5030750
Received: 30 January 2013 / Revised: 25 February 2013 / Accepted: 28 February 2013 / Published: 8 March 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (365 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this project was to investigate the relationships between total and regional distribution of body fat and tissue lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) status. Healthy men and women (N = 100; average age: 22.5 year, average BMI: 23.4 kg/m [...] Read more.
The objective of this project was to investigate the relationships between total and regional distribution of body fat and tissue lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) status. Healthy men and women (N = 100; average age: 22.5 year, average BMI: 23.4 kg/m2) were evaluated. Total body and regional fat mass were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic Delphi A). Serum LZ was measured using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and retinal LZ (referred to as macular pigment optical density; MPOD) was measured using heterochromatic flicker photometry. Body fat percentage (total and regional) was inversely related to MPOD (p < 0.01) but no significant relationship was found for serum LZ. Higher body fat percentage, even within relatively healthy limits, is associated with lower tissue LZ status. The results indicate that adiposity may affect the nutritional state of the retina. Such links may be one of the reasons that obesity promotes age-related degenerative conditions of the retina. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and the Eye) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Pharmacokinetics of High-Dose Weekly Oral Vitamin D3 Supplementation during the Third Trimester of Pregnancy in Dhaka, Bangladesh
Nutrients 2013, 5(3), 788-810; doi:10.3390/nu5030788
Received: 31 December 2012 / Revised: 5 February 2013 / Accepted: 19 February 2013 / Published: 12 March 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (727 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A pharmacokinetic study was conducted to assess the biochemical dose-response and tolerability of high-dose prenatal vitamin D3 supplementation in Dhaka, Bangladesh (23°N). Pregnant women at 27–30 weeks gestation (n = 28) were randomized to 70,000 IU once + 35,000 IU/week vitamin [...] Read more.
A pharmacokinetic study was conducted to assess the biochemical dose-response and tolerability of high-dose prenatal vitamin D3 supplementation in Dhaka, Bangladesh (23°N). Pregnant women at 27–30 weeks gestation (n = 28) were randomized to 70,000 IU once + 35,000 IU/week vitamin D3 (group PH: pregnant, higher dose) or 14,000 IU/week vitamin D3 (PL: pregnant, lower dose) until delivery. A group of non-pregnant women (n = 16) was similarly administered 70,000 IU once + 35,000 IU/week for 10 weeks (NH: non-pregnant, higher-dose). Rise (∆) in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration ([25(OH)D]) above baseline was the primary pharmacokinetic outcome. Baseline mean [25(OH)D] were similar in PH and PL (35 nmol/L vs. 31 nmol/L, p = 0.34). A dose-response effect was observed: ∆[25(OH)D] at modeled steady-state was 19 nmol/L (95% CI, 1 to 37) higher in PH vs. PL (p = 0.044). ∆[25(OH)D] at modeled steady-state was lower in PH versus NH but the difference was not significant (−15 nmol/L, 95% CI −34 to 5; p = 0.13). In PH, 100% attained [25(OH)D] ≥ 50 nmol/L and 90% attained [25(OH)D] ≥ 80 nmol/L; in PL, 89% attained [25(OH)D] ≥ 50 nmol/L but 56% attained [25(OH)D] ≥ 80 nmol/L. Cord [25(OH)D] (n = 23) was slightly higher in PH versus PL (117 nmol/L vs. 98 nmol/L; p = 0.07). Vitamin D3 was well tolerated; there were no supplement-related serious adverse clinical events or hypercalcemia. In summary, a regimen of an initial dose of 70,000 IU and 35,000 IU/week vitamin D3 in the third trimester of pregnancy was non-hypercalcemic and attained [25(OH)D] ≥ 80 nmol/L in virtually all mothers and newborns. Further research is required to establish the safety of high-dose vitamin D3 in pregnancy and to determine if supplement-induced [25(OH)D] elevations lead to maternal-infant health benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Human Health) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Assessing Eating Disorder Risk: The Pivotal Role of Achievement Anxiety, Depression and Female Gender in Non-Clinical Samples
Nutrients 2013, 5(3), 811-828; doi:10.3390/nu5030811
Received: 12 December 2012 / Revised: 18 January 2013 / Accepted: 22 February 2013 / Published: 12 March 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (706 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of the present study was to assess factors predicting eating disorder risk in a sample of undergraduate students. A structured questionnaire was employed on a random sample (n = 1865) consisting of the following sections: demographics, SCOFF (Sick, Control, [...] Read more.
The objective of the present study was to assess factors predicting eating disorder risk in a sample of undergraduate students. A structured questionnaire was employed on a random sample (n = 1865) consisting of the following sections: demographics, SCOFF (Sick, Control, One stone, Fat, Food) questionnaire for screening eating disorders and the Achievement Anxiety Test and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale. The students at risk for eating disorders (SCOFF score ≥2) were 39.7%. Eating disorder risk was more frequent in females, students with divorced parents, students who lived alone, students who were seeking a romantic relationship or were married, students who were at a post-secondary vocational institute/college (private-public) educational level and who were more likely to have marks under merit level. Also, the mean scores for the psychological factors of depression, stress and anxiety were higher in students with eating disorder risk. A logistic regression model was produced depicting that depression, stress, female gender, being married and searching for a romantic relationship were risk factors of having an eating disorder risk. The suggested psychological model examined with structural equation modelling signified the role of academic anxiety as an immediate precursor of general anxiety. Hence, college populations in Greece need organized infrastructures of nutrition health services and campaigns to assist in reducing the risk of eating disorders. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Pathology of Bursae of Fabricius in Methionine-Deficient Broiler Chickens
Nutrients 2013, 5(3), 877-886; doi:10.3390/nu5030877
Received: 31 January 2013 / Revised: 25 February 2013 / Accepted: 5 March 2013 / Published: 13 March 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2021 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this 42-day study was to investigate the effects of methionine (Met) deficiency on immune function by determining the relative weight, morphological and ultrastructural changes of bursae of Fabricius, cell cycle, and apoptosis of bursa cells. One hundred and twenty [...] Read more.
The purpose of this 42-day study was to investigate the effects of methionine (Met) deficiency on immune function by determining the relative weight, morphological and ultrastructural changes of bursae of Fabricius, cell cycle, and apoptosis of bursa cells. One hundred and twenty one-day-old avian broilers were randomly divided into two groups and fed on a control diet (starter diet, Met 0.50%; grower diet, Met 0.40%) and Met-deficient diet (starter diet, Met 0.26%; grower diet, Met 0.28%) for six weeks. The relative weight of bursae was decreased with Met deficiency when compared to that of the control group. Lesions were also observed in the Met-deficient group. Histopathologically, the numbers of lymphocytes in the follicles were decreased. Ultrastructurally, the mitochondria of lymphocytes were swollen in the Met-deficient group. As measured by flow cytometry, bursal cells in the G0G1 phase were significantly higher (P < 0.01), and bursal cells in the S, G2M phases and proliferating index were obviously lower (P < 0.01) with Met deficiency than in the control group. Moreover, the percentage of apoptotic cells in the bursae were significantly increased in Met-deficient birds (P < 0.01). It was concluded that Met deficiency restrained the development of the bursae of Fabricius and affected the humoral immunity of the chickens. Full article
Open AccessArticle The ABC of Vitamin D: A Qualitative Study of the Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Vitamin D Deficiency amongst Selected Population Groups
Nutrients 2013, 5(3), 915-927; doi:10.3390/nu5030915
Received: 29 January 2013 / Revised: 25 February 2013 / Accepted: 8 March 2013 / Published: 15 March 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (358 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Objective: In Australia, vitamin D supply in food is limited, and sun exposure is the main source of vitamin D. However skin cancer risk is high, and the need to gain some sun exposure for adequate vitamin D is challenging public health [...] Read more.
Objective: In Australia, vitamin D supply in food is limited, and sun exposure is the main source of vitamin D. However skin cancer risk is high, and the need to gain some sun exposure for adequate vitamin D is challenging public health messages to use protection in the sun. The complex vitamin D public health message may be confusing the public and, in particular, those at highest risk for vitamin D deficiency. This study explored vitamin D and sun exposure attitudes, knowledge and practices of some groups considered at risk of vitamin D deficiency and those delivering healthy sun exposure messages to children. Method: 52 adults participated in six focus groups. Results: Results corroborated with previous research showing low levels of vitamin D knowledge. Individual and environmental barriers to receiving adequate sun exposure were also identified. Conclusions and Implications: The message advocating balanced sun exposure to produce adequate vitamin D needs to be made clearer and be more effectively communicated. Findings provide insights to aid development of appropriate public health messages for safe sun exposure and vitamin D, especially for vulnerable groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Human Health) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Total Vitamin D Assay Comparison of the Roche Diagnostics “Vitamin D Total” Electrochemiluminescence Protein Binding Assay with the Chromsystems HPLC Method in a Population with both D2 and D3 forms of Vitamin D
Nutrients 2013, 5(3), 971-980; doi:10.3390/nu5030971
Received: 22 November 2012 / Revised: 11 January 2013 / Accepted: 7 March 2013 / Published: 22 March 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (497 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study compared two methods of assaying the 25-hydroxylated metabolites of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) and ergocalciferol (vitamin D2). A fully automated electrochemiluminescence assay from Roche Diagnostics and an HPLC based method from Chromsystems were used to measure vitamin D levels in surplus [...] Read more.
This study compared two methods of assaying the 25-hydroxylated metabolites of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) and ergocalciferol (vitamin D2). A fully automated electrochemiluminescence assay from Roche Diagnostics and an HPLC based method from Chromsystems were used to measure vitamin D levels in surplus sera from 96 individuals, where the majority has the D2 form of the vitamin. Deming regression, concordance rate, correlation and Altman Bland agreement were performed. Seventy two subjects (75%) had a D2 concentration >10 nmol/L while the remaining twenty four subjects had vitamin D2 concentration of less than 10 nmol/L by HPLC. Overall, the Roche Diagnostics method showed a negative bias of −2.59 ± 4.11 nmol/L on the e602 as compared to the HPLC with a concordance rate of 84%. The concordance rate was 91% in samples with D2 of less than 10 nmol/L and 82% in those with D2 concentration >10 nmol/L. The overall correlation had an r value of 0.77. The r value was higher in samples with D2 levels of less than 10 nmol/L, r = 0.96, as compared to those with D2 values of greater than 10 nmol/L, r = 0.74. The observed bias had little impact on clinical decision and therefore is clinically acceptable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Human Health) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Hypertriglyceridemia
Nutrients 2013, 5(3), 981-1001; doi:10.3390/nu5030981
Received: 22 January 2013 / Revised: 14 March 2013 / Accepted: 15 March 2013 / Published: 22 March 2013
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (447 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is commonly encountered in lipid and cardiology clinics. Severe HTG warrants treatment because of the associated increased risk of acute pancreatitis. However, the need to treat, and the correct treatment approach for patients with mild to moderate HTG are issues [...] Read more.
Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is commonly encountered in lipid and cardiology clinics. Severe HTG warrants treatment because of the associated increased risk of acute pancreatitis. However, the need to treat, and the correct treatment approach for patients with mild to moderate HTG are issues for ongoing evaluation. In the past, it was felt that triglyceride does not directly contribute to development of atherosclerotic plaques. However, this view is evolving, especially for triglyceride-related fractions and variables measured in the non-fasting state. Our understanding of the etiology, genetics and classification of HTG states is also evolving. Previously, HTG was considered to be a dominant disorder associated with variation within a single gene. The old nomenclature includes the term “familial” in the names of several hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP) phenotypes that included HTG as part of their profile, including combined hyperlipidemia (HLP type 2B), dysbetalipoproteinemia (HLP type 3), simple HTG (HLP type 4) and mixed hyperlipidemia (HLP type 5). This old thinking has given way to the idea that genetic susceptibility to HTG results from cumulative effects of multiple genetic variants acting in concert. HTG most is often a “polygenic” or “multigenic” trait. However, a few rare autosomal recessive forms of severe HTG have been defined. Treatment depends on the overall clinical context, including severity of HTG, concomitant presence of other lipid disturbances, and the patient's global risk of cardiovascular disease. Therapeutic strategies include dietary counselling, lifestyle management, control of secondary factors, use of omega-3 preparations and selective use of pharmaceutical agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dyslipidemia and Obesity)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Gut Microbiota as Potential Therapeutic Target for the Treatment of Cow’s Milk Allergy
Nutrients 2013, 5(3), 651-662; doi:10.3390/nu5030651
Received: 20 December 2012 / Revised: 14 February 2013 / Accepted: 20 February 2013 / Published: 1 March 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (490 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cow’s milk allergy (CMA) continues to be a growing health concern for infants living in Western countries. The long-term prognosis for the majority of affected infants is good, with about 80% naturally acquiring tolerance by the age of four years. However, recent [...] Read more.
Cow’s milk allergy (CMA) continues to be a growing health concern for infants living in Western countries. The long-term prognosis for the majority of affected infants is good, with about 80% naturally acquiring tolerance by the age of four years. However, recent studies suggest that the natural history of CMA is changing, with an increasing persistence until later ages. The pathogenesis of CMA, as well as oral tolerance, is complex and not completely known, although numerous studies implicate gut-associated immunity and enteric microflora, and it has been suggested that an altered composition of intestinal microflora results in an unbalanced local and systemic immune response to food allergens. In addition, there are qualitative and quantitative differences in the composition of gut microbiota between patients affected by CMA and healthy infants. These findings prompt the concept that specific beneficial bacteria from the human intestinal microflora, designated probiotics, could restore intestinal homeostasis and prevent or alleviate allergy, at least in part by interacting with the intestinal immune cells. The aim of this paper is to review what is currently known about the use of probiotics as dietary supplements in CMA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiota and Gut Function)
Open AccessReview Role of Probiotics in Short Bowel Syndrome in Infants and Children—A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2013, 5(3), 679-699; doi:10.3390/nu5030679
Received: 19 December 2012 / Revised: 11 February 2013 / Accepted: 19 February 2013 / Published: 5 March 2013
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (458 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality in children. Probiotics, due to their beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal tract (e.g., improving gut barrier function, motility, facilitation of intestinal adaptation and decreasing pathogen load and inflammation) may have [...] Read more.
Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality in children. Probiotics, due to their beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal tract (e.g., improving gut barrier function, motility, facilitation of intestinal adaptation and decreasing pathogen load and inflammation) may have a therapeutic role in the management of SBS. To conduct a systematic review of the current evidence for the effects of probiotic supplementation in children with SBS, the standard Cochrane methodology for systematic reviews was used. The databases, Pubmed, Embase, ACTR, CENTRAL, and the international trial registry, and reference lists of articles were searched for randomised (RCT) or quasi-randomised controlled trials reporting on the use of probiotics in SBS. Our search revealed no RCTs on the use of probiotics in children with SBS. We found one small cross-over RCT (placebo controlled crossover clinical trial), one case control study and nine case reports on the use of probiotics in children with SBS. In the crossover RCT, there was no consistent effect on intestinal permeability (primary outcome) after supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG) in nine children with SBS. The case control study (four cases: four controls) reported a trend for increase in height and weight velocity and improvement in non-clinical outcomes, such as gut flora, lymphocyte count and serum prealbumin. Five of the nine case reports showed that children (n = 12) with SBS were benefited (e.g., cessation of diarrhoea, improved faecal flora, weight gain and weaning from parenteral nutrition) by probiotic supplementation. The remaining four reported on the adverse effects, such as Lactobacillus sepsis (n = 3) and d-lactic acidosis (n = 2). There is insufficient evidence on the effects of probiotics in children with SBS. The safety and efficacy of probiotic supplementation in this high-risk cohort needs to be evaluated in large definitive trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiota and Gut Function)
Open AccessReview Is There a Therapeutic Role for Selenium in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency?
Nutrients 2013, 5(3), 758-770; doi:10.3390/nu5030758
Received: 14 December 2012 / Revised: 22 February 2013 / Accepted: 26 February 2013 / Published: 11 March 2013
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Abstract
Selenium is an essential trace mineral of fundamental importance to human health. Much of its beneficial influence is attributed to its presence within selenoproteins, a group of proteins containing the rare amino acid selenocysteine. There are 25 known human selenoproteins including glutathione [...] Read more.
Selenium is an essential trace mineral of fundamental importance to human health. Much of its beneficial influence is attributed to its presence within selenoproteins, a group of proteins containing the rare amino acid selenocysteine. There are 25 known human selenoproteins including glutathione peroxidases, thioredoxin reductases and selenoproteins. Selenoprotein S (SEPS1) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident selenoprotein involved in the removal of misfolded proteins from the ER. SEPS1 expression can be induced by ER stress, an event that is associated with conformational disorders and occurs due to accumulation of misfolded proteins within the ER. Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, also known as genetic emphysema, is a conformational disorder in which the roles of ER stress, SEPS1 and selenium have been investigated. SEPS1 can relieve ER stress in an in vitro model of AAT deficiency by reducing levels of active ATF6 and inhibiting grp78 promoter- and NFκB activity; some of these effects are enhanced in the presence of selenium supplementation. Other studies examining the molecular mechanisms by which selenium mediates its anti-inflammatory effects have identified a role for prostaglandin 15d-PGJ2 in targeting NFκB and PPARγ. Together these ER stress-relieving and anti-inflammatory properties suggest a therapeutic potential for selenium supplementation in genetic emphysema. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Selenium and Health)
Open AccessReview The Dietary Intake of Wheat and other Cereal Grains and Their Role in Inflammation
Nutrients 2013, 5(3), 771-787; doi:10.3390/nu5030771
Received: 17 December 2012 / Revised: 8 February 2013 / Accepted: 21 February 2013 / Published: 12 March 2013
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (446 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wheat is one of the most consumed cereal grains worldwide and makes up a substantial part of the human diet. Although government-supported dietary guidelines in Europe and the U.S.A advise individuals to eat adequate amounts of (whole) grain products per day, cereal [...] Read more.
Wheat is one of the most consumed cereal grains worldwide and makes up a substantial part of the human diet. Although government-supported dietary guidelines in Europe and the U.S.A advise individuals to eat adequate amounts of (whole) grain products per day, cereal grains contain “anti-nutrients,” such as wheat gluten and wheat lectin, that in humans can elicit dysfunction and disease. In this review we discuss evidence from in vitro, in vivo and human intervention studies that describe how the consumption of wheat, but also other cereal grains, can contribute to the manifestation of chronic inflammation and autoimmune diseases by increasing intestinal permeability and initiating a pro-inflammatory immune response. Full article
Open AccessReview The Role of Gut Microbiota on Insulin Resistance
Nutrients 2013, 5(3), 829-851; doi:10.3390/nu5030829
Received: 19 November 2012 / Revised: 10 January 2013 / Accepted: 15 January 2013 / Published: 12 March 2013
Cited by 33 | PDF Full-text (637 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The development of obesity and insulin resistance has been extensively studied in the last decades, but the mechanisms underlying these alterations are still not completely understood. The gut microbiota has been identified as a potential contributor to metabolic diseases. It has been [...] Read more.
The development of obesity and insulin resistance has been extensively studied in the last decades, but the mechanisms underlying these alterations are still not completely understood. The gut microbiota has been identified as a potential contributor to metabolic diseases. It has been shown that obese individuals present different proportions of bacterial phyla compared with lean individuals, with an increase in Firmicutes and Actinobacteria and a decrease in Bacteroidetes. This alteration seems to interfere with intestinal permeability, increasing the absorption of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which reaches circulation and initiates activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and 2 and LPS receptor CD14, leading to increased activation of inflammatory pathways. With these activations, an impairment of the insulin signaling is observed, with decreased phosphorylation of the insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate (IRS) and Akt, as well as increased inhibitory serine phosphorylation of IRS-1. Altered proportions of bacterial phyla have also been demonstrated to interfere with host’s biochemical pathways, increasing energy extraction and depot in adipose tissue. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms by which the alteration in the gut microbiota produces different signaling activations and phenotype changes may offer an interesting opportunity for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiota and Gut Function)
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Open AccessReview Influence of Amino Acids, Dietary Protein, and Physical Activity on Muscle Mass Development in Humans
Nutrients 2013, 5(3), 852-876; doi:10.3390/nu5030852
Received: 29 January 2013 / Revised: 13 February 2013 / Accepted: 25 February 2013 / Published: 13 March 2013
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (548 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ingestion of protein is crucial for maintenance of a variety of body functions and within the scope of this review we will specifically focus on the regulation of skeletal muscle mass. A quantitative limitation exists as to how much muscle protein the [...] Read more.
Ingestion of protein is crucial for maintenance of a variety of body functions and within the scope of this review we will specifically focus on the regulation of skeletal muscle mass. A quantitative limitation exists as to how much muscle protein the body can synthesize in response to protein intake. Ingestion of excess protein exerts an unwanted load to the body and therefore, it is important to find the least amount of protein that provides the maximal hypertrophic stimulus. Hence, research has focused on revealing the relationship between protein intake (dose) and its resulting stimulation of muscle protein synthesis (response). In addition to the protein amount, the protein digestibility and, hence, the availability of its constituent amino acids is decisive for the response. In this regard, recent studies have provided in-depth knowledge about the time-course of the muscle protein synthetic response dependent on the characteristics of the protein ingested. The effect of protein intake on muscle protein accretion can further be stimulated by prior exercise training. In the ageing population, physical training may counteract the development of “anabolic resistance” and restore the beneficial effect of protein feeding. Presently, our knowledge is based on measures obtained in standardized experimental settings or during long-term intervention periods. However, to improve coherence between these types of data and to further improve our knowledge of the effects of protein ingestion, other investigative approaches than those presently used are requested. Full article
Open AccessReview Genomic and Epigenomic Insights into Nutrition and Brain Disorders
Nutrients 2013, 5(3), 887-914; doi:10.3390/nu5030887
Received: 25 January 2013 / Revised: 28 February 2013 / Accepted: 8 March 2013 / Published: 15 March 2013
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (547 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Considerable evidence links many neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders with multiple complex interactions between genetics and environmental factors such as nutrition. Mental health problems, autism, eating disorders, Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease and brain tumours are related to individual variability in numerous [...] Read more.
Considerable evidence links many neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders with multiple complex interactions between genetics and environmental factors such as nutrition. Mental health problems, autism, eating disorders, Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease and brain tumours are related to individual variability in numerous protein-coding and non-coding regions of the genome. However, genotype does not necessarily determine neurological phenotype because the epigenome modulates gene expression in response to endogenous and exogenous regulators, throughout the life-cycle. Studies using both genome-wide analysis of multiple genes and comprehensive analysis of specific genes are providing new insights into genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying nutrition and neuroscience. This review provides a critical evaluation of the following related areas: (1) recent advances in genomic and epigenomic technologies, and their relevance to brain disorders; (2) the emerging role of non-coding RNAs as key regulators of transcription, epigenetic processes and gene silencing; (3) novel approaches to nutrition, epigenetics and neuroscience; (4) gene-environment interactions, especially in the serotonergic system, as a paradigm of the multiple signalling pathways affected in neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders. Current and future advances in these four areas should contribute significantly to the prevention, amelioration and treatment of multiple devastating brain disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics)
Open AccessReview Lipoprotein Subfractions in Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Clinical Significance and Therapeutic Approaches
Nutrients 2013, 5(3), 928-948; doi:10.3390/nu5030928
Received: 28 January 2013 / Revised: 6 March 2013 / Accepted: 6 March 2013 / Published: 18 March 2013
Cited by 42 | PDF Full-text (420 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Small, dense low density lipoprotein (sdLDL) represents an emerging cardiovascular risk factor, since these particles can be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) independently of established risk factors, including plasma lipids. Obese subjects frequently have atherogenic dyslipidaemia, including elevated sdLDL levels, in addition [...] Read more.
Small, dense low density lipoprotein (sdLDL) represents an emerging cardiovascular risk factor, since these particles can be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) independently of established risk factors, including plasma lipids. Obese subjects frequently have atherogenic dyslipidaemia, including elevated sdLDL levels, in addition to elevated triglycerides (TG), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and apolipoprotein-B, as well as decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Obesity-related co-morbidities, such as metabolic syndrome (MetS) are also characterized by dyslipidaemia. Therefore, agents that favourably modulate LDL subclasses may be of clinical value in these subjects. Statins are the lipid-lowering drug of choice. Also, anti-obesity and lipid lowering drugs other than statins could be useful in these patients. However, the effects of anti-obesity drugs on CVD risk factors remain unclear. We review the clinical significance of sdLDL in being overweight and obesity, as well as the efficacy of anti-obesity drugs on LDL subfractions in these individuals; a short comment on HDL subclasses is also included. Our literature search was based on PubMed and Scopus listings. Further research is required to fully explore both the significance of sdLDL and the efficacy of anti-obesity drugs on LDL subfractions in being overweight, obesity and MetS. Improving the lipoprotein profile in these patients may represent an efficient approach for reducing cardiovascular risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dyslipidemia and Obesity)
Open AccessReview Vitamin D and Obesity
Nutrients 2013, 5(3), 949-956; doi:10.3390/nu5030949
Received: 16 February 2013 / Revised: 12 March 2013 / Accepted: 14 March 2013 / Published: 20 March 2013
Cited by 36 | PDF Full-text (256 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Obesity is a significant health problem world-wide, particularly in developed nations. Vitamin D deficiency is pandemic, and has been implicated in a wide variety of disease states. This paper seeks to examine the consistently reported relationship between obesity and low vitamin D [...] Read more.
Obesity is a significant health problem world-wide, particularly in developed nations. Vitamin D deficiency is pandemic, and has been implicated in a wide variety of disease states. This paper seeks to examine the consistently reported relationship between obesity and low vitamin D concentrations, with reference to the possible underlying mechanisms. The possibility that vitamin D may assist in preventing or treating obesity is also examined, and recommendations for future research are made. There is a clear need for adequately-powered, prospective interventions which include baseline measurement of 25D concentrations and involve adequate doses of supplemental vitamin D. Until such studies have been reported, the role of vitamin D supplementation in obesity prevention remains uncertain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Human Health) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview Regulatory Effects of Cu, Zn, and Ca on Fe Absorption: The Intricate Play between Nutrient Transporters
Nutrients 2013, 5(3), 957-970; doi:10.3390/nu5030957
Received: 4 February 2013 / Revised: 8 March 2013 / Accepted: 15 March 2013 / Published: 20 March 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (450 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Iron is an essential nutrient for almost every living organism because it is required in a number of biological processes that serve to maintain life. In humans, recycling of senescent erythrocytes provides most of the daily requirement of iron. In addition, we [...] Read more.
Iron is an essential nutrient for almost every living organism because it is required in a number of biological processes that serve to maintain life. In humans, recycling of senescent erythrocytes provides most of the daily requirement of iron. In addition, we need to absorb another 1–2 mg Fe from the diet each day to compensate for losses due to epithelial sloughing, perspiration, and bleeding. Iron absorption in the intestine is mainly regulated on the enterocyte level by effectors in the diet and systemic regulators accessing the enterocyte through the basal lamina. Recently, a complex meshwork of interactions between several trace metals and regulatory proteins was revealed. This review focuses on advances in our understanding of Cu, Zn, and Ca in the regulation of iron absorption. Ascorbate as an important player is also considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Iron and Human Health)
Open AccessReview Mineral Metabolic Abnormalities and Mortality in Dialysis Patients
Nutrients 2013, 5(3), 1002-1023; doi:10.3390/nu5031002
Received: 10 January 2013 / Revised: 19 February 2013 / Accepted: 7 March 2013 / Published: 22 March 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (480 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The survival rate of dialysis patients, as determined by risk factors such as hypertension, nutritional status, and chronic inflammation, is lower than that of the general population. In addition, disorders of bone mineral metabolism are independently related to mortality and morbidity associated [...] Read more.
The survival rate of dialysis patients, as determined by risk factors such as hypertension, nutritional status, and chronic inflammation, is lower than that of the general population. In addition, disorders of bone mineral metabolism are independently related to mortality and morbidity associated with cardiovascular disease and fracture in dialysis patients. Hyperphosphatemia is an important risk factor of, not only secondary hyperparathyroidism, but also cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, the risk of death reportedly increases with an increase in adjusted serum calcium level, while calcium levels below the recommended target are not associated with a worsened outcome. Thus, the significance of target levels of serum calcium in dialysis patients is debatable. The consensus on determining optimal parathyroid function in dialysis patients, however, is yet to be established. Therefore, the contribution of phosphorus and calcium levels to prognosis is perhaps more significant. Elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 levels have also been shown to be associated with cardiovascular events and death. In this review, we examine the associations between mineral metabolic abnormalities including serum phosphorus, calcium, and parathyroid hormone and mortality in dialysis patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Needs of Older Adults)

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