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Nutrients, Volume 5, Issue 2 (February 2013), Pages 328-623

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Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Food Safety Attitudes in College Students: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis of a Conceptual Model
Nutrients 2013, 5(2), 328-339; doi:10.3390/nu5020328
Received: 26 December 2012 / Revised: 14 January 2013 / Accepted: 25 January 2013 / Published: 30 January 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (4534 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
College students are one of the most at-risk population groups for food poisoning, due to risky food safety behaviors. Using the Likert Scale, undergraduate students were asked to participate in a Food Safety Survey which was completed by 499 students ages 18–25. Data was
[...] Read more.
College students are one of the most at-risk population groups for food poisoning, due to risky food safety behaviors. Using the Likert Scale, undergraduate students were asked to participate in a Food Safety Survey which was completed by 499 students ages 18–25. Data was analyzed using SPSS and AMOS statistical software. Four conceptual definitions regarding food safety were defined as: general food safety, bacterial food safety, produce food safety, and politics associated with food safety. Knowledge seems to be an important factor in shaping students attitudes regarding general and bacterial safety. Ethnicity plays a role in how people view the politics of food safety, and the safety of organic foods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Selenium Content in Seafood in Japan
Nutrients 2013, 5(2), 388-395; doi:10.3390/nu5020388
Received: 5 January 2013 / Revised: 24 January 2013 / Accepted: 25 January 2013 / Published: 31 January 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (361 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Selenium is an essential micronutrient for humans, and seafood is one of the major selenium sources, as well as red meat, grains, eggs, chicken, liver and garlic. A substantial proportion of the total amount of selenium is present as selenium containing imidazole compound,
[...] Read more.
Selenium is an essential micronutrient for humans, and seafood is one of the major selenium sources, as well as red meat, grains, eggs, chicken, liver and garlic. A substantial proportion of the total amount of selenium is present as selenium containing imidazole compound, selenoneine, in the muscles of ocean fish. In order to characterize the selenium content in seafood, the total selenium levels were measured in the edible portions of commercially important fish and shellfish species. Among the tested edible portions, alfonsino muscle had the highest selenium levels (concentration of 1.27 mg/kg tissue). High levels of selenium (1.20–1.07 mg/kg) were also found in the salted ovary products of mullet and Pacific herring. In other fish muscles, the selenium levels ranged between 0.12 and 0.77 mg/kg tissue. The selenium levels were closely correlated with the mercury levels in the white and red muscles in alfonsino. The selenium content in spleen, blood, hepatopancreas, heart, red muscle, white muscle, brain, ovary and testis ranged between 1.10 and 24.8 mg/kg tissue in alfonsino. Full article
Open AccessArticle Soluble Fiber Dextrin and Soluble Corn Fiber Supplementation Modify Indices of Health in Cecum and Colon of Sprague-Dawley Rats
Nutrients 2013, 5(2), 396-410; doi:10.3390/nu5020396
Received: 28 November 2012 / Revised: 18 January 2013 / Accepted: 21 January 2013 / Published: 4 February 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (409 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate health outcomes resulting from dietary supplementation of novel, low-digestible carbohydrates in the cecum and colon of Sprague-Dawley rats randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups for 21 days: 5% cellulose (Control), Pectin, soluble fiber
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The objective of this study was to evaluate health outcomes resulting from dietary supplementation of novel, low-digestible carbohydrates in the cecum and colon of Sprague-Dawley rats randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups for 21 days: 5% cellulose (Control), Pectin, soluble fiber dextrin (SFD), or soluble corn fiber (SCF). Rats fed Pectin had a higher average daily food intake, but no differences in final body weights or rates of weight gain among treatments were observed. No differences were observed in total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) or branched-chain fatty acid (BCFA) concentrations in the cecum and colon of rats fed either SFD or SCF. The SFD and SCF treatments increased cecal propionate and decreased butyrate concentrations compared to Control or Pectin. Pectin resulted in increased BCFA in the cecum and colon. Supplementation of SFD and SCF had no effect on cecal microbial populations compared to Control. Consumption of SFD and SCF increased total and empty cecal weight but not colon weight. Gut histomorphology was positively affected by SFD and SCF. Increased crypt depth, goblet cell numbers, and acidic mucin were observed in both the cecum and colon of rats supplemented with SFD, SCF, and Pectin. These novel, low-digestible carbohydrates appear to be beneficial in modulating indices of hindgut morphology when supplemented in the diet of the rat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fiber and Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Risk of Suboptimal Iodine Intake in Pregnant Norwegian Women
Nutrients 2013, 5(2), 424-440; doi:10.3390/nu5020424
Received: 23 November 2012 / Revised: 18 December 2012 / Accepted: 28 January 2013 / Published: 6 February 2013
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (595 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 μg/day and 150
[...] Read more.
Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 μg/day and 150 μg/day) in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The median iodine intake was 141 μg/day from food and 166 μg/day from food and supplements. Use of iodine-containing supplements was reported by 31.6%. The main source of iodine from food was dairy products, contributing 67% and 43% in non-supplement and iodine-supplement users, respectively. Of 61,904 women, 16.1% had iodine intake below 100 μg/day, 42.0% had iodine intake below 150 μg/day and only 21.7% reached the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation of 250 μg/day. Dietary behaviors associated with increased risk of low and suboptimal iodine intake were: no use of iodine-containing supplements and low intake of milk/yogurt, seafood and eggs. The median urinary iodine concentration measured in 119 participants (69 μg/L) confirmed insufficient iodine intake. Public health strategies are needed to improve and secure the iodine status of pregnant women in Norway. Full article
Open AccessArticle Dairy Consumption and the Risk of 15-Year Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in a Cohort of Older Australians
Nutrients 2013, 5(2), 441-454; doi:10.3390/nu5020441
Received: 2 November 2012 / Revised: 9 January 2013 / Accepted: 30 January 2013 / Published: 6 February 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (491 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The effects of habitual dairy consumption and the risk of 15-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in a cohort of older Australians were investigated. Participants (n = 2900) completed a validated 145-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used
[...] Read more.
The effects of habitual dairy consumption and the risk of 15-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in a cohort of older Australians were investigated. Participants (n = 2900) completed a validated 145-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to investigate associations between tertiles of the dairy consumption, including low/reduced fat dairy, whole fat dairy and their ratio (ratioLF/WF), and risk of mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke or combined CVD. There were 548 recorded cases of CVD mortality in this cohort. For total dairy intake, a reduction in risk of CVD was only seen in tertile 2 (adjusted hazard ratio, AHR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.55–0.93), and for CHD both tertile 2 and tertile 3 were associated with a reduced risk (both with AHR: 0.71). However there were no linear trends between total dairy consumption and any of the three outcomes. There were no associations or trends between low/reduced fat dairy or whole fat dairy consumption, or ratioLF/WF and any of the three outcomes in the fully adjusted model (all p > 0.05). This study found no consistent association between baseline consumption of dairy foods and the risk of CHD, stroke and combined CVD mortality. Full article
Open AccessArticle An Extract from Wax Apple (Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merrill and Perry) Effects Glycogenesis and Glycolysis Pathways in Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-Treated FL83B Mouse Hepatocytes
Nutrients 2013, 5(2), 455-467; doi:10.3390/nu5020455
Received: 29 November 2012 / Revised: 21 January 2013 / Accepted: 4 February 2013 / Published: 6 February 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (718 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
FL83B mouse hepatocytes were treated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) to induce insulin resistance to investigate the effect of a wax apple aqueous extract (WAE) in insulin-resistant mouse hepatocytes. The uptake of 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1, 3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxyglucose (2 NBDG), a fluorescent d-glucose derivative, was
[...] Read more.
FL83B mouse hepatocytes were treated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) to induce insulin resistance to investigate the effect of a wax apple aqueous extract (WAE) in insulin-resistant mouse hepatocytes. The uptake of 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1, 3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxyglucose (2 NBDG), a fluorescent d-glucose derivative, was performed, and the metabolism of carbohydrates was evaluated by examining the expression of glycogenesis or glycolysis-related proteins in insulin-resistant hepatocytes. The results show that WAE significantly improves the uptake of glucose and enhances glycogen content in insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes. The results from Western blot analysis also reveal that WAE increases the expression of glycogen synthase (GS), hexokinase (HXK), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), phosphofructokinase (PFK) and aldolase in TNF-α treated cells, indicating that WAE may ameliorate glucose metabolism by promoting glycogen synthesis and the glycolysis pathways in insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effects of Germinated Brown Rice and Its Bioactive Compounds on the Expression of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Gene
Nutrients 2013, 5(2), 468-477; doi:10.3390/nu5020468
Received: 20 December 2012 / Accepted: 21 January 2013 / Published: 6 February 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (529 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dysregulated metabolism is implicated in obesity and other disease conditions like type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases, which are linked to abnormalities of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). PPARγ has been the focus of much research aimed at managing these
[...] Read more.
Dysregulated metabolism is implicated in obesity and other disease conditions like type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases, which are linked to abnormalities of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). PPARγ has been the focus of much research aimed at managing these diseases. Also, germinated brown rice (GBR) is known to possess antidiabetic, antiobesity and hypocholesterolemic effects. We hypothesized that GBR bioactive compounds may mediate some of the improvements in metabolic indices through PPARγ modulation. Cultured HEP-G2 cells were treated with 50 ppm and 100 ppm of extracts from GBR (GABA, ASG and oryzanol) after determination of cell viabilities using MTT assays. Results showed that all extracts upregulated the expression of the PPARγ. However, combination of all three extracts showed downregulation of the gene, suggesting that, in combination, the effects of these bioactives differ from their individual effects likely mediated through competitive inhibition of the gene. Upregulation of the gene may have therapeutic potential in diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases, while its downregulation likely contributes to GBR’s antiobesity effects. These potentials are worth studying further. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate Replaced with Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) on Insulin Resistance in Rats Fed with a High-Fat/Cholesterol Diet
Nutrients 2013, 5(2), 552-564; doi:10.3390/nu5020552
Received: 24 December 2012 / Revised: 25 January 2013 / Accepted: 6 February 2013 / Published: 15 February 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (491 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wild rice (WR) is a very nutritious grain that has been used to treat diabetes in Chinese medicinal practice. City diet (CD) is based on the diet consumed by Asian area residents in modern society, which is rich in saturated fats, cholesterol and
[...] Read more.
Wild rice (WR) is a very nutritious grain that has been used to treat diabetes in Chinese medicinal practice. City diet (CD) is based on the diet consumed by Asian area residents in modern society, which is rich in saturated fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of replacing white rice and processed wheat starch of CD with WR as the chief source of dietary carbohydrates on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet. Except the rats of the low-fat (LF) diet group, the rats of the other three groups, including to high-fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet, CD and WR diet, were fed with high-fat/cholesterol diets for eight weeks. The rats fed with CD exhibited higher weight gain and lower insulin sensitivity compared to the rats consuming a HFC diet. However, WR suppressed high-fat/cholesterol diet-induced insulin resistance. WR decreased liver homogenate triglyceride and free fatty acids levels, raised serum adiponectin concentration and reduced serum lipocalin-2 and visfatin concentrations. In addition, the WR diet potently augmented the relative expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, alpha and gamma, and abated relative expressions of leptin and lipocalin-2 in the tissues of interest. These findings indicate that WR is effective in ameliorating abnormal glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in rats, even when the diet consumed is high in fat and cholesterol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Cardiovascular Diseases)
Open AccessArticle Socioeconomic Status Is Significantly Associated with the Dietary Intakes of Folate and Depression Scales in Japanese Workers (J-HOPE Study)
Nutrients 2013, 5(2), 565-578; doi:10.3390/nu5020565
Received: 15 November 2012 / Revised: 11 December 2012 / Accepted: 4 February 2013 / Published: 18 February 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (605 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The association of socioeconomic status (SES) with nutrient intake attracts public attention worldwide. In the current study, we examined the associations of SES with dietary intake of folate and health outcomes in general Japanese workers. This Japanese occupational cohort consisted off 2266 workers.
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The association of socioeconomic status (SES) with nutrient intake attracts public attention worldwide. In the current study, we examined the associations of SES with dietary intake of folate and health outcomes in general Japanese workers. This Japanese occupational cohort consisted off 2266 workers. SES was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Intakes of all nutrients were assessed with a validated, brief and self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). The degree of depressive symptoms was measured by the validated Japanese version of the K6 scale. Multiple linear regression and stratified analysis were used to evaluate the associations of intake with the confounding factors. Path analysis was conducted to describe the impacts of intake on health outcomes. Education levels and household incomes were significantly associated with intake of folate and depression scales (p < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex and total energy intake, years of education significantly affect the folate intake (β = 0.117, p < 0.001). The structural equation model (SEM) shows that the indirect effect of folate intake is statistically significant and strong (p < 0.05, 56% of direct effect) in the pathway of education level to depression scale. Our study shows both education and income are significantly associated with depression scales in Japanese workers, and the effort to increase the folate intake may alleviate the harms of social disparities on mental health. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effect of Malnutrition on the Expression of Cytokines Involved in Th1 Cell Differentiation
Nutrients 2013, 5(2), 579-593; doi:10.3390/nu5020579
Received: 5 December 2012 / Revised: 25 January 2013 / Accepted: 5 February 2013 / Published: 19 February 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (669 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Malnutrition is a common cause of secondary immune deficiency and has been linked to an increased susceptibility to infection in humans. Malnutrition specifically affects T-cell-mediated immune responses. The aim of this study was to assess in lymphocytes from malnourished children the expression levels
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Malnutrition is a common cause of secondary immune deficiency and has been linked to an increased susceptibility to infection in humans. Malnutrition specifically affects T-cell-mediated immune responses. The aim of this study was to assess in lymphocytes from malnourished children the expression levels of IL-12, IL-18 and IL-21, molecules that induce the differentiation of T cells related to the immunological cellular response (Th1 response) and the production of cytokines related to the immunological cellular response (Th1 cytokines). We found that the expression levels of IL-12, IL-18 and IL-21 were significantly diminished in malnourished children compared to well-nourished children and were coincident with lower plasmatic levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ (Th1 cytokines). In this study, we show for the first time that the gene expression and intracellular production of cytokines responsible for Th1 cell differentiation (IL-12, IL-18 and IL-21) are diminished in malnourished children. As expected, this finding was related to lower plasmatic levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ. The decreased expression of Th1 cytokines observed in this study may contribute to the deterioration of the immunological Type 1 (cellular) response. We hypothesize that the decreased production of IL-12, IL-18 and IL-21 in malnourished children contributes to their inability to eradicate infections. Full article
Open AccessArticle Distribution of Selenium and Oxidative Stress in Breast Tumor-Bearing Mice
Nutrients 2013, 5(2), 594-607; doi:10.3390/nu5020594
Received: 21 December 2012 / Revised: 29 January 2013 / Accepted: 5 February 2013 / Published: 20 February 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (999 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study investigated the effects of breast tumors on the blood and tissue distribution of essential trace mineral selenium (Se), and oxidative stress status of mice. Female 10-week-old BALB/cByJNarl mice were randomly assigned into control (CNL) and breast tumor-bearing (TB) groups. TB
[...] Read more.
The present study investigated the effects of breast tumors on the blood and tissue distribution of essential trace mineral selenium (Se), and oxidative stress status of mice. Female 10-week-old BALB/cByJNarl mice were randomly assigned into control (CNL) and breast tumor-bearing (TB) groups. TB mice were injected subcutaneously into the right hind thigh with 5 × 106 EMT6 mouse mammary tumor cells. After 22 days, we measured Se concentrations, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, and malondialdehyde (MDA) products (indicator of oxidative stress) in plasma, various tissues, and plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentrations. There were no significant differences in body weights and daily intake between both groups. Compared with the CNL group, TB mice have decreases in plasma Se concentrations and GPx activities, as well as higher plasma VEGF and MDA concentrations. Plasma Se concentrations were also negatively correlated with plasma MDA and VEGF concentrations. Furthermore, tissue Se concentrations and GPx activities in TB animals were lower; whereas the MDA concentrations higher in various tissues including liver, kidney, brain, lung, spleen, and thymic tissues. In conclusion, disruption of Se homeostasis critically reflects oxidative stress in target tissues, thus may increase the risk for progression of breast cancer and metastasis. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Selenistasis: Epistatic Effects of Selenium on Cardiovascular Phenotype
Nutrients 2013, 5(2), 340-358; doi:10.3390/nu5020340
Received: 14 December 2012 / Revised: 19 January 2013 / Accepted: 23 January 2013 / Published: 31 January 2013
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (349 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although selenium metabolism is intricately linked to cardiovascular biology and function, and deficiency of selenium is associated with cardiac pathology, utilization of selenium in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease remains an elusive goal. From a reductionist standpoint, the major function of
[...] Read more.
Although selenium metabolism is intricately linked to cardiovascular biology and function, and deficiency of selenium is associated with cardiac pathology, utilization of selenium in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease remains an elusive goal. From a reductionist standpoint, the major function of selenium in vivo is antioxidant defense via its incorporation as selenocysteine into enzyme families such as glutathione peroxidases and thioredoxin reductases. In addition, selenium compounds are heterogeneous and have complex metabolic fates resulting in effects that are not entirely dependent on selenoprotein expression. This complex biology of selenium in vivo may underlie the fact that beneficial effects of selenium supplementation demonstrated in preclinical studies using models of oxidant stress-induced cardiovascular dysfunction, such as ischemia-reperfusion injury and myocardial infarction, have not been consistently observed in clinical trials. In fact, recent studies have yielded data that suggest that unselective supplementation of selenium may, indeed, be harmful. Interesting biologic actions of selenium are its simultaneous effects on redox balance and methylation status, a combination that may influence gene expression. These combined actions may explain some of the biphasic effects seen with low and high doses of selenium, the potentially harmful effects seen in normal individuals, and the beneficial effects noted in preclinical studies of disease. Given the complexity of selenium biology, systems biology approaches may be necessary to reach the goal of optimization of selenium status to promote health and prevent disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Selenium and Health)
Open AccessReview Plant Sterols as Anticancer Nutrients: Evidence for Their Role in Breast Cancer
Nutrients 2013, 5(2), 359-387; doi:10.3390/nu5020359
Received: 25 September 2012 / Revised: 30 November 2012 / Accepted: 24 January 2013 / Published: 31 January 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (452 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
While many factors are involved in the etiology of cancer, it has been clearly established that diet significantly impacts one’s risk for this disease. More recently, specific food components have been identified which are uniquely beneficial in mitigating the risk of specific cancer
[...] Read more.
While many factors are involved in the etiology of cancer, it has been clearly established that diet significantly impacts one’s risk for this disease. More recently, specific food components have been identified which are uniquely beneficial in mitigating the risk of specific cancer subtypes. Plant sterols are well known for their effects on blood cholesterol levels, however research into their potential role in mitigating cancer risk remains in its infancy. As outlined in this review, the cholesterol modulating actions of plant sterols may overlap with their anti-cancer actions. Breast cancer is the most common malignancy affecting women and there remains a need for effective adjuvant therapies for this disease, for which plant sterols may play a distinctive role. Full article
Open AccessReview Brain Enhancing Ingredients from Āyurvedic Medicine: Quintessential Example of Bacopa monniera, a Narrative Review
Nutrients 2013, 5(2), 478-497; doi:10.3390/nu5020478
Received: 27 September 2012 / Revised: 30 October 2012 / Accepted: 6 December 2012 / Published: 6 February 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (601 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Āyurveda, the science (ved) of life (ayu), owing its origin to Veda, the oldest recorded wisdom of human civilization written in 3500 BCE, contains extensive knowledge of various diseases and their therapeutic approaches. It essentially relied on nature
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Āyurveda, the science (ved) of life (ayu), owing its origin to Veda, the oldest recorded wisdom of human civilization written in 3500 BCE, contains extensive knowledge of various diseases and their therapeutic approaches. It essentially relied on nature and the immune system of an individual, and therapeutic interventions were introduced only to augment the immune system. Āyurveda had eight specialties, including psycho-neuroscience (a combination of psychology, clinical psychology and psychiatry) and a unique promotive therapy encompassing nutrition, rejuvenation and geriatrics. The symptoms of various brain disorders, including memory disorder, were well defined. The goal of Āyurveda was to help an individual to achieve his cherished goal of leading a healthy life of 100 years. To achieve this, great emphasis was laid on nutrition, diet and a good conduct by the two great exponents of Āyurveda viz. Carak and Suśruta. By following these regimens, an individual could lead a less stressful life free from emotional disturbances. Both Carak and Suśruta had believed that these in combination with rasayana (rejuvenating) plants could enable an individual to lead a healthy life of 100 years. Full article
Open AccessReview Fat Depots, Free Fatty Acids, and Dyslipidemia
Nutrients 2013, 5(2), 498-508; doi:10.3390/nu5020498
Received: 31 December 2012 / Revised: 31 January 2013 / Accepted: 4 February 2013 / Published: 7 February 2013
Cited by 50 | PDF Full-text (411 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Body fat deposition and excess free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism contribute to dyslipidemia and the adverse health consequences of obesity. Individuals with upper body obesity have impaired functioning of adipocytes, the primary fatty acid storage site. Excess visceral fat is strongly associated with
[...] Read more.
Body fat deposition and excess free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism contribute to dyslipidemia and the adverse health consequences of obesity. Individuals with upper body obesity have impaired functioning of adipocytes, the primary fatty acid storage site. Excess visceral fat is strongly associated with impaired suppression of FFA release in response to insulin, as well as with hypertriglyceridemia and low concentrations of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. High FFA concentrations can induce insulin resistance in muscle and liver. Furthermore, failure of hyperinsulinemia to normally suppress FFA is associated with impaired carbohydrate oxidation and muscle glucose storage, reduced hepatic insulin clearance and elevated triglycerides. Understanding the impact of body fat distribution on FFA metabolism and dyslipidemia is critical for determining the link between overweight and obesity and cardiovascular disease risk. In the current review, we will explore the relationship between adipose tissue, body fat depots, and FFA metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dyslipidemia and Obesity)
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Open AccessReview Do Fat Supplements Increase Physical Performance?
Nutrients 2013, 5(2), 509-524; doi:10.3390/nu5020509
Received: 5 November 2012 / Revised: 7 January 2013 / Accepted: 31 January 2013 / Published: 7 February 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (728 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fish oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) belong to a popular class of food supplements known as “fat supplements”, which are claimed to reduce muscle glycogen breakdown, reduce body mass, as well as reduce muscle damage and inflammatory responses. Sport athletes consume fish
[...] Read more.
Fish oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) belong to a popular class of food supplements known as “fat supplements”, which are claimed to reduce muscle glycogen breakdown, reduce body mass, as well as reduce muscle damage and inflammatory responses. Sport athletes consume fish oil and CLA mainly to increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. Recent evidence indicates that this kind of supplementation may have other side-effects and a new role has been identified in steroidogenensis. Preliminary findings demonstrate that fish oil and CLA may induce a physiological increase in testosterone synthesis. The aim of this review is to describe the effects of fish oil and CLA on physical performance (endurance and resistance exercise), and highlight the new results on the effects on testosterone biosynthesis. In view of these new data, we can hypothesize that fat supplements may improve the anabolic effect of exercise. Full article
Open AccessReview Reduced Glutathione: A Radioprotector or a Modulator of DNA-Repair Activity?
Nutrients 2013, 5(2), 525-542; doi:10.3390/nu5020525
Received: 14 November 2012 / Revised: 15 December 2012 / Accepted: 31 January 2013 / Published: 7 February 2013
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (392 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The tripeptide glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant intracellular nonprotein thiol, and it is involved in many cellular functions including redox-homeostatic buffering. Cellular radiosensitivity has been shown to be inversely correlated to the endogenous level of GSH. On the other hand, controversy is
[...] Read more.
The tripeptide glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant intracellular nonprotein thiol, and it is involved in many cellular functions including redox-homeostatic buffering. Cellular radiosensitivity has been shown to be inversely correlated to the endogenous level of GSH. On the other hand, controversy is raised with respect to its role in the field of radioprotection since GSH failed to provide consistent protection in several cases. Reports have been published that DNA repair in cells has a dependence on GSH. Subsequently, S-glutathionylation (forming mixed disulfides with the protein–sulfhydryl groups), a potent mechanism for posttranslational regulation of a variety of regulatory and metabolic proteins when there is a change in the celluar redox status (lower GSH/GSSG ratio), has received increased attention over the last decade. GSH, as a single agent, is found to affect DNA damage and repair, redox regulation and multiple cell signaling pathways. Thus, seemingly, GSH does not only act as a radioprotector against DNA damage induced by X-rays through glutathionylation, it may also act as a modulator of the DNA-repair activity. Judging by the number of publications within the last six years, it is obvious that the field of protein glutathionylation impinges on many aspects of biology, from regulation of protein function to roles of cell cycle and apoptosis. Aberrant protein glutathionylation and its association with cancer and other diseases is an area of increasing interest. Full article
Open AccessReview Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition in the Perioperative Period: State of the Art
Nutrients 2013, 5(2), 608-623; doi:10.3390/nu5020608
Received: 19 December 2012 / Revised: 17 January 2013 / Accepted: 4 February 2013 / Published: 21 February 2013
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (567 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nutritional support of surgical and critically ill patients has undergone significant advances since 1936 when Studley demonstrated a direct relationship between pre-operative weight loss and operative mortality. The advent of total parenteral nutrition followed by the extraordinary progress in parenteral and enteral feedings,
[...] Read more.
Nutritional support of surgical and critically ill patients has undergone significant advances since 1936 when Studley demonstrated a direct relationship between pre-operative weight loss and operative mortality. The advent of total parenteral nutrition followed by the extraordinary progress in parenteral and enteral feedings, in addition to the increased knowledge of cellular biology and biochemistry, have allowed clinicians to treat malnutrition and improve surgical patient’s outcomes. We reviewed the literature for the current status of perioperative nutrition comparing parenteral nutrition with enteral nutrition. In a surgical patient with established malnutrition, nutritional support should begin at least 7–10 days prior to surgery. Those patients in whom eating is not anticipated beyond the first five days following surgery should receive the benefits of early enteral or parenteral feeding depending on whether the gut can be used. Compared to parenteral nutrition, enteral nutrition is associated with fewer complications, a decrease in the length of hospital stay, and a favorable cost-benefit analysis. In addition, many patients may benefit from newer enteral formulations such as Immunonutrition as well as disease-specific formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enteral Nutrition)

Other

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Open AccessMeeting Report Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People
Nutrients 2013, 5(2), 411-423; doi:10.3390/nu5020411
Received: 10 January 2013 / Revised: 1 February 2013 / Accepted: 1 February 2013 / Published: 5 February 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (334 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October–2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy
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The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October–2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD’s) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security. Full article
Open AccessBrief Report Effects of Lutein and Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Macular Pigment Optical Density in a Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2013, 5(2), 543-551; doi:10.3390/nu5020543
Received: 24 December 2012 / Revised: 30 January 2013 / Accepted: 4 February 2013 / Published: 15 February 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (698 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We studied the macular pigment ocular density (MPOD) in patients with early age macular degeneration (AMD) before and 1 year after nutritional supplementation with lutein and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Forty-four patients with AMD were randomly divided into two groups that received placebo (
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We studied the macular pigment ocular density (MPOD) in patients with early age macular degeneration (AMD) before and 1 year after nutritional supplementation with lutein and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Forty-four patients with AMD were randomly divided into two groups that received placebo (n = 21) or a nutritional supplement (n = 23, 12 mg of lutein and 280 mg of DHA daily). Heterochromatic flicker photometry was used to determine the MPOD. At baseline, the MPOD in AMD patients with placebo was 0.286 ± 0.017 meanwhile in AMD patients with supplementation it was 0.291 ± 0.016. One year later, the mean MPOD had increased by 0.059 in the placebo group and by 0.162 in patients receiving lutein and DHA. This difference between groups was significant (p < 0.05). Lutein and DHA supplementation is effective in increasing the MPOD and may aid in prevention of age related macular degeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and the Eye) Print Edition available

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