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Influence of Amino Acids, Dietary Protein, and Physical Activity on Muscle Mass Development in Humans
Institute of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery M81, Bispebjerg Hospital, Bispebjerg Bakke 23, DK-2400 Copenhagen NV, Denmark
Center for Healthy Aging, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3, DK-2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 January 2013; in revised form: 13 February 2013 / Accepted: 25 February 2013 / Published: 13 March 2013
Abstract: Ingestion of protein is crucial for maintenance of a variety of body functions and within the scope of this review we will specifically focus on the regulation of skeletal muscle mass. A quantitative limitation exists as to how much muscle protein the body can synthesize in response to protein intake. Ingestion of excess protein exerts an unwanted load to the body and therefore, it is important to find the least amount of protein that provides the maximal hypertrophic stimulus. Hence, research has focused on revealing the relationship between protein intake (dose) and its resulting stimulation of muscle protein synthesis (response). In addition to the protein amount, the protein digestibility and, hence, the availability of its constituent amino acids is decisive for the response. In this regard, recent studies have provided in-depth knowledge about the time-course of the muscle protein synthetic response dependent on the characteristics of the protein ingested. The effect of protein intake on muscle protein accretion can further be stimulated by prior exercise training. In the ageing population, physical training may counteract the development of “anabolic resistance” and restore the beneficial effect of protein feeding. Presently, our knowledge is based on measures obtained in standardized experimental settings or during long-term intervention periods. However, to improve coherence between these types of data and to further improve our knowledge of the effects of protein ingestion, other investigative approaches than those presently used are requested.
Keywords: Protein; amino acids; muscle protein synthesis; muscle protein breakdown; resistance exercise
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MDPI and ACS Style
Dideriksen, K.; Reitelseder, S.; Holm, L. Influence of Amino Acids, Dietary Protein, and Physical Activity on Muscle Mass Development in Humans. Nutrients 2013, 5, 852-876.
Dideriksen K, Reitelseder S, Holm L. Influence of Amino Acids, Dietary Protein, and Physical Activity on Muscle Mass Development in Humans. Nutrients. 2013; 5(3):852-876.
Dideriksen, Kasper; Reitelseder, Søren; Holm, Lars. 2013. "Influence of Amino Acids, Dietary Protein, and Physical Activity on Muscle Mass Development in Humans." Nutrients 5, no. 3: 852-876.