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Lipoprotein Subfractions in Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Clinical Significance and Therapeutic Approaches
Biomedical Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, University of Palermo, Palermo, 90127, Italy
Second Propedeutic Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Hippokration Hospital, Thessaloniki, 54124, Greece
Laboratory of Radiobiology and Molecular Genetics, Institute Vinca, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, 11000, Serbia
Department of Clinical Biochemistry (Vascular Disease Prevention Clinics), Royal Free Campus, University College London Medical School, University College London (UCL), Pond Street, London, NW3 2QG, UK
Euro-Mediterranean Institute of Science and Technology, Palermo, 90139, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 January 2013; in revised form: 6 March 2013 / Accepted: 6 March 2013 / Published: 18 March 2013
Abstract: Small, dense low density lipoprotein (sdLDL) represents an emerging cardiovascular risk factor, since these particles can be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) independently of established risk factors, including plasma lipids. Obese subjects frequently have atherogenic dyslipidaemia, including elevated sdLDL levels, in addition to elevated triglycerides (TG), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and apolipoprotein-B, as well as decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Obesity-related co-morbidities, such as metabolic syndrome (MetS) are also characterized by dyslipidaemia. Therefore, agents that favourably modulate LDL subclasses may be of clinical value in these subjects. Statins are the lipid-lowering drug of choice. Also, anti-obesity and lipid lowering drugs other than statins could be useful in these patients. However, the effects of anti-obesity drugs on CVD risk factors remain unclear. We review the clinical significance of sdLDL in being overweight and obesity, as well as the efficacy of anti-obesity drugs on LDL subfractions in these individuals; a short comment on HDL subclasses is also included. Our literature search was based on PubMed and Scopus listings. Further research is required to fully explore both the significance of sdLDL and the efficacy of anti-obesity drugs on LDL subfractions in being overweight, obesity and MetS. Improving the lipoprotein profile in these patients may represent an efficient approach for reducing cardiovascular risk.
Keywords: lipoproteins; small dense low density lipoprotein; obesity; metabolic syndrome; obesity treatment; anti-obesity drugs; lipid-lowering drugs
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Nikolic, D.; Katsiki, N.; Montalto, G.; Isenovic, E.R.; Mikhailidis, D.P.; Rizzo, M. Lipoprotein Subfractions in Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Clinical Significance and Therapeutic Approaches. Nutrients 2013, 5, 928-948.
Nikolic D, Katsiki N, Montalto G, Isenovic ER, Mikhailidis DP, Rizzo M. Lipoprotein Subfractions in Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Clinical Significance and Therapeutic Approaches. Nutrients. 2013; 5(3):928-948.
Nikolic, Dragana; Katsiki, Niki; Montalto, Giuseppe; Isenovic, Esma R.; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P.; Rizzo, Manfredi. 2013. "Lipoprotein Subfractions in Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Clinical Significance and Therapeutic Approaches." Nutrients 5, no. 3: 928-948.