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Naringin Improves Diet-Induced Cardiovascular Dysfunction and Obesity in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats
School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia
Department of Biological and Physical Sciences, The University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba 4350, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 January 2013; in revised form: 16 February 2013 / Accepted: 21 February 2013 / Published: 27 February 2013
Abstract: Obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and fatty liver, together termed metabolic syndrome, are key risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Chronic feeding of a diet high in saturated fats and simple sugars, such as fructose and glucose, induces these changes in rats. Naturally occurring compounds could be a cost-effective intervention to reverse these changes. Flavonoids are ubiquitous secondary plant metabolites; naringin gives the bitter taste to grapefruit. This study has evaluated the effect of naringin on diet-induced obesity and cardiovascular dysfunction in high carbohydrate, high fat-fed rats. These rats developed increased body weight, glucose intolerance, increased plasma lipid concentrations, hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis, liver inflammation and steatosis with compromised mitochondrial respiratory chain activity. Dietary supplementation with naringin (approximately 100 mg/kg/day) improved glucose intolerance and liver mitochondrial dysfunction, lowered plasma lipid concentrations and improved the structure and function of the heart and liver without decreasing total body weight. Naringin normalised systolic blood pressure and improved vascular dysfunction and ventricular diastolic dysfunction in high carbohydrate, high fat-fed rats. These beneficial effects of naringin may be mediated by reduced inflammatory cell infiltration, reduced oxidative stress, lowered plasma lipid concentrations and improved liver mitochondrial function in rats.
Keywords: naringin; obesity; hypertension; inflammation; mitochondria
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MDPI and ACS Style
Alam, M.A.; Kauter, K.; Brown, L. Naringin Improves Diet-Induced Cardiovascular Dysfunction and Obesity in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats. Nutrients 2013, 5, 637-650.
Alam MA, Kauter K, Brown L. Naringin Improves Diet-Induced Cardiovascular Dysfunction and Obesity in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats. Nutrients. 2013; 5(3):637-650.
Alam, Md. A.; Kauter, Kathleen; Brown, Lindsay. 2013. "Naringin Improves Diet-Induced Cardiovascular Dysfunction and Obesity in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats." Nutrients 5, no. 3: 637-650.