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Extracts, Anthocyanins and Procyanidins from Aronia melanocarpa as Radical Scavengers and Enzyme Inhibitors
School of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1068, Blindern, N-0316 Oslo, Norway
PlantChem, Særheim Research Center, N-4353 Klepp station, Norway
Department of Medical Biochemistry, Stavanger University Hospital, N-4068 Stavanger, Norway
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 January 2013; in revised form: 2 February 2013 / Accepted: 15 February 2013 / Published: 4 March 2013
Abstract: Extracts, subfractions, isolated anthocyanins and isolated procyanidins B2, B5 and C1 from the berries and bark of Aronia melanocarpa were investigated for their antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities. Four different bioassays were used, namely scavenging of the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, inhibition of 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO), inhibition of xanthine oxidase (XO) and inhibition of α-glucosidase. Among the anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-arabinoside possessed the strongest and cyanidin 3-xyloside the weakest radical scavenging and enzyme inhibitory activity. These effects seem to be influenced by the sugar units linked to the anthocyanidin. Subfractions enriched in procyanidins were found to be potent α-glucosidase inhibitors; they possessed high radical scavenging properties, strong inhibitory activity towards 15-LO and moderate inhibitory activity towards XO. Trimeric procyanidin C1 showed higher activity in the biological assays compared to the dimeric procyanidins B2 and B5. This study suggests that different polyphenolic compounds of A. melanocarpa can have beneficial effects in reducing blood glucose levels due to inhibition of α-glucosidase and may have a potential to alleviate oxidative stress.
Keywords: Aronia melanocarpa; anthocyanins; procyanidins; DPPH; 15-lipoxygenase; xanthine oxidase; α-glucosidase
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MDPI and ACS Style
Bräunlich, M.; Slimestad, R.; Wangensteen, H.; Brede, C.; Malterud, K.E.; Barsett, H. Extracts, Anthocyanins and Procyanidins from Aronia melanocarpa as Radical Scavengers and Enzyme Inhibitors. Nutrients 2013, 5, 663-678.
Bräunlich M, Slimestad R, Wangensteen H, Brede C, Malterud KE, Barsett H. Extracts, Anthocyanins and Procyanidins from Aronia melanocarpa as Radical Scavengers and Enzyme Inhibitors. Nutrients. 2013; 5(3):663-678.
Bräunlich, Marie; Slimestad, Rune; Wangensteen, Helle; Brede, Cato; Malterud, Karl E.; Barsett, Hilde. 2013. "Extracts, Anthocyanins and Procyanidins from Aronia melanocarpa as Radical Scavengers and Enzyme Inhibitors." Nutrients 5, no. 3: 663-678.