Nutrients 2013, 5(3), 771-787; doi:10.3390/nu5030771
Review

The Dietary Intake of Wheat and other Cereal Grains and Their Role in Inflammation

1email and 1,2,* email
Received: 17 December 2012; in revised form: 8 February 2013 / Accepted: 21 February 2013 / Published: 12 March 2013
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Wheat is one of the most consumed cereal grains worldwide and makes up a substantial part of the human diet. Although government-supported dietary guidelines in Europe and the U.S.A advise individuals to eat adequate amounts of (whole) grain products per day, cereal grains contain “anti-nutrients,” such as wheat gluten and wheat lectin, that in humans can elicit dysfunction and disease. In this review we discuss evidence from in vitro, in vivo and human intervention studies that describe how the consumption of wheat, but also other cereal grains, can contribute to the manifestation of chronic inflammation and autoimmune diseases by increasing intestinal permeability and initiating a pro-inflammatory immune response.
Keywords: cereal grains; celiac disease; gluten; gliadin; inflammation; intestinal permeability; lectins; wheat; wheat germ agglutinin
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MDPI and ACS Style

de Punder, K.; Pruimboom, L. The Dietary Intake of Wheat and other Cereal Grains and Their Role in Inflammation. Nutrients 2013, 5, 771-787.

AMA Style

de Punder K, Pruimboom L. The Dietary Intake of Wheat and other Cereal Grains and Their Role in Inflammation. Nutrients. 2013; 5(3):771-787.

Chicago/Turabian Style

de Punder, Karin; Pruimboom, Leo. 2013. "The Dietary Intake of Wheat and other Cereal Grains and Their Role in Inflammation." Nutrients 5, no. 3: 771-787.


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