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The Dietary Intake of Wheat and other Cereal Grains and Their Role in Inflammation
University of Girona, Plaça Sant Domènec, 3 Edifici Les Àligues, 17071 Girona, Spain
Uni for Life, University of Graz, Beethovenstraβe 9, 8010 Graz, Austria
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 December 2012; in revised form: 8 February 2013 / Accepted: 21 February 2013 / Published: 12 March 2013
Abstract: Wheat is one of the most consumed cereal grains worldwide and makes up a substantial part of the human diet. Although government-supported dietary guidelines in Europe and the U.S.A advise individuals to eat adequate amounts of (whole) grain products per day, cereal grains contain “anti-nutrients,” such as wheat gluten and wheat lectin, that in humans can elicit dysfunction and disease. In this review we discuss evidence from in vitro, in vivo and human intervention studies that describe how the consumption of wheat, but also other cereal grains, can contribute to the manifestation of chronic inflammation and autoimmune diseases by increasing intestinal permeability and initiating a pro-inflammatory immune response.
Keywords: cereal grains; celiac disease; gluten; gliadin; inflammation; intestinal permeability; lectins; wheat; wheat germ agglutinin
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MDPI and ACS Style
de Punder, K.; Pruimboom, L. The Dietary Intake of Wheat and other Cereal Grains and Their Role in Inflammation. Nutrients 2013, 5, 771-787.
de Punder K, Pruimboom L. The Dietary Intake of Wheat and other Cereal Grains and Their Role in Inflammation. Nutrients. 2013; 5(3):771-787.
de Punder, Karin; Pruimboom, Leo. 2013. "The Dietary Intake of Wheat and other Cereal Grains and Their Role in Inflammation." Nutrients 5, no. 3: 771-787.