Next Article in Journal
Next Article in Special Issue
Previous Article in Journal
Nutrients 2013, 5(3), 1002-1023; doi:10.3390/nu5031002
Review

Mineral Metabolic Abnormalities and Mortality in Dialysis Patients

1,* , 1
 and 2
Received: 10 January 2013; in revised form: 19 February 2013 / Accepted: 7 March 2013 / Published: 22 March 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Needs of Older Adults)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [480 KB, uploaded 22 March 2013]
Abstract: The survival rate of dialysis patients, as determined by risk factors such as hypertension, nutritional status, and chronic inflammation, is lower than that of the general population. In addition, disorders of bone mineral metabolism are independently related to mortality and morbidity associated with cardiovascular disease and fracture in dialysis patients. Hyperphosphatemia is an important risk factor of, not only secondary hyperparathyroidism, but also cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, the risk of death reportedly increases with an increase in adjusted serum calcium level, while calcium levels below the recommended target are not associated with a worsened outcome. Thus, the significance of target levels of serum calcium in dialysis patients is debatable. The consensus on determining optimal parathyroid function in dialysis patients, however, is yet to be established. Therefore, the contribution of phosphorus and calcium levels to prognosis is perhaps more significant. Elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 levels have also been shown to be associated with cardiovascular events and death. In this review, we examine the associations between mineral metabolic abnormalities including serum phosphorus, calcium, and parathyroid hormone and mortality in dialysis patients.
Keywords: calcium; chronic kidney disease; phosphate; mineral and bone disorder; vascular calcification calcium; chronic kidney disease; phosphate; mineral and bone disorder; vascular calcification
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Abe, M.; Okada, K.; Soma, M. Mineral Metabolic Abnormalities and Mortality in Dialysis Patients. Nutrients 2013, 5, 1002-1023.

AMA Style

Abe M, Okada K, Soma M. Mineral Metabolic Abnormalities and Mortality in Dialysis Patients. Nutrients. 2013; 5(3):1002-1023.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Abe, Masanori; Okada, Kazuyoshi; Soma, Masayoshi. 2013. "Mineral Metabolic Abnormalities and Mortality in Dialysis Patients." Nutrients 5, no. 3: 1002-1023.


Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert