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Nutrients 2013, 5(3), 829-851; doi:10.3390/nu5030829
Review

The Role of Gut Microbiota on Insulin Resistance

1
 and 2,*
1 Department of Immunology, ICB IV, University of São Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2415, Cidade Universitária, São Paulo, SP, Brazil 2 Department of Internal Medicine, State University of Campinas, Rua Tessália Vieira de Camargo, 126, Cidade Universitária, Campinas, SP, Brazil
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 November 2012 / Revised: 10 January 2013 / Accepted: 15 January 2013 / Published: 12 March 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiota and Gut Function)
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Abstract

The development of obesity and insulin resistance has been extensively studied in the last decades, but the mechanisms underlying these alterations are still not completely understood. The gut microbiota has been identified as a potential contributor to metabolic diseases. It has been shown that obese individuals present different proportions of bacterial phyla compared with lean individuals, with an increase in Firmicutes and Actinobacteria and a decrease in Bacteroidetes. This alteration seems to interfere with intestinal permeability, increasing the absorption of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which reaches circulation and initiates activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and 2 and LPS receptor CD14, leading to increased activation of inflammatory pathways. With these activations, an impairment of the insulin signaling is observed, with decreased phosphorylation of the insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate (IRS) and Akt, as well as increased inhibitory serine phosphorylation of IRS-1. Altered proportions of bacterial phyla have also been demonstrated to interfere with host’s biochemical pathways, increasing energy extraction and depot in adipose tissue. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms by which the alteration in the gut microbiota produces different signaling activations and phenotype changes may offer an interesting opportunity for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes.
Keywords: obesity; insulin resistance; gut microbiota; type 2 diabetes obesity; insulin resistance; gut microbiota; type 2 diabetes
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Caricilli, A.M.; Saad, M.J.A. The Role of Gut Microbiota on Insulin Resistance. Nutrients 2013, 5, 829-851.

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