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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 10, Issue 7 (July 2013), Pages 2606-3088

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Open AccessArticle Care Networking: A Study of Technical Mediations in a Home Telecare Service
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 3072-3088; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10073072
Received: 22 May 2013 / Revised: 5 July 2013 / Accepted: 9 July 2013 / Published: 22 July 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (190 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article examines the processes of technical mediation within familial care networks based on a study of home telecare targeted at older people. Supported by contributions from the actor—network theory as part of the social psychology of science and technology, these processes of
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This article examines the processes of technical mediation within familial care networks based on a study of home telecare targeted at older people. Supported by contributions from the actor—network theory as part of the social psychology of science and technology, these processes of technical mediation are analyzed using a qualitative approach. The data were gathered through six focus groups and four in-depth interviews; the participants in the study included users, relatives and formal carers. Thematic analysis techniques encompassing the information were used, revealing the effects on the patterns of caring relationships. The results show the interplay between presence-absence made possible by the devices; the two-way direction of care between the older people and the artifacts; and the process of sustaining care using the technology. We conclude that care should be seen as a socio-technical network where technology plays an active role in sustaining family relationships. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Telehealthcare)
Open AccessArticle Climate Change and West Nile Virus in a Highly Endemic Region of North America
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 3052-3071; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10073052
Received: 7 April 2013 / Revised: 25 April 2013 / Accepted: 14 May 2013 / Published: 22 July 2013
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (777 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Canadian prairie provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta have reported the highest human incidence of clinical cases of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in Canada. The primary vector for WVN in this region is the mosquito Culex tarsalis. This study used constructed
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The Canadian prairie provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta have reported the highest human incidence of clinical cases of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in Canada. The primary vector for WVN in this region is the mosquito Culex tarsalis. This study used constructed models and biological thresholds to predict the spatial and temporal distribution of Cx. tarsalis and WNV infection rate in the prairie provinces under a range of potential future climate and habitat conditions. We selected one median and two extreme outcome scenarios to represent future climate conditions in the 2020 (2010–2039), 2050 (2040–2069) and 2080 (2070–2099) time slices. In currently endemic regions, the projected WNV infection rate under the median outcome scenario in 2050 raised 17.91 times (ranged from 1.29–27.45 times for all scenarios and time slices) comparing to current climate conditions. Seasonal availability of Cx. tarsalis infected with WNV extended from June to August to include May and September. Moreover, our models predicted northward range expansion for Cx. tarsalis (1.06–2.56 times the current geographic area) and WNV (1.08–2.34 times the current geographic area). These findings predict future public and animal health risk of WNV in the Canadian prairie provinces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology of West Nile Virus)
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Open AccessArticle Modeling Monthly Variation of Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae) Abundance and West Nile Virus Infection Rate in the Canadian Prairies
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 3033-3051; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10073033
Received: 7 June 2013 / Revised: 15 July 2013 / Accepted: 16 July 2013 / Published: 22 July 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (532 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Canadian prairie provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba have generally reported the highest human incidence of West Nile virus (WNV) in Canada. In this study, environmental and biotic factors were used to predict numbers of Culex tarsalis Coquillett, which is the primary
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The Canadian prairie provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba have generally reported the highest human incidence of West Nile virus (WNV) in Canada. In this study, environmental and biotic factors were used to predict numbers of Culex tarsalis Coquillett, which is the primary mosquito vector of WNV in this region, and prevalence of WNV infection in Cx. tarsalis in the Canadian prairies. The results showed that higher mean temperature and elevated time lagged mean temperature were associated with increased numbers of Cx. tarsalis and higher WNV infection rates. However, increasing precipitation was associated with higher abundance of Cx. tarsalis and lower WNV infection rate. In addition, this study found that increased temperature fluctuation and wetland land cover were associated with decreased infection rate in the Cx. tarsalis population. The resulting monthly models can be used to inform public health interventions by improving the predictions of population abundance of Cx. tarsalis and the transmission intensity of WNV in the Canadian prairies. Furthermore, these models can also be used to examine the potential effects of climate change on the vector population abundance and the distribution of WNV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology of West Nile Virus)
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Open AccessArticle Educational Differences in Smoking among Adolescents in Germany: What is the Role of Parental and Adolescent Education Levels and Intergenerational Educational Mobility?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 3015-3032; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10073015
Received: 21 June 2013 / Revised: 15 July 2013 / Accepted: 16 July 2013 / Published: 19 July 2013
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (330 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Adolescence is the period in which smoking onset usually occurs and the course for future socioeconomic status (SES) is set. However, because of the transitional nature of adolescence, it is questionable whether health inequalities are best measured by indicators of parental
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Background: Adolescence is the period in which smoking onset usually occurs and the course for future socioeconomic status (SES) is set. However, because of the transitional nature of adolescence, it is questionable whether health inequalities are best measured by indicators of parental SES or rather by indicators of the adolescents’ own developing SES. We examine the independent effects of parental and adolescent education and intergenerational educational mobility on adolescent smoking behaviour while controlling for differences in parental and close friends’ smoking behaviour. Methods: The study is based on data from a subsample (12–17 years, n = 5,053) of the nationally representative German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Participants reported their education level as well as their personal and close friends’ smoking behaviour. Information on parental education and smoking behaviour was obtained via parent interviews. Adolescent and parental education data were dichotomized (low/high), leading to four categories of intergenerational educational mobility: stable high, potentially upwardly mobile, potentially downwardly mobile, and stable low. Results: After adjustment for parental and close friends’ smoking behaviour, adolescent smoking habits were strongly related to their personal education level, but not that of their parents. Among boys, both stable low and downwardly mobile adolescents had a 2.7-fold increased risk of being a smoker compared with peers with a stable high education. Among girls, only those with a stable low education had a 2.2-fold increased risk of smoking. Among both genders, educational upward mobility was associated with significantly lower smoking rates compared with peers with a stable low education (boys: OR 0.32; 95% CI 0.20–0.53; girls: OR 0.52; 95% CI 0.37–0.73). Conclusions: Our results show that the risk of an adolescent smoking is influenced by their own education level rather than that of their parents. Educational upward mobility seems to be protective against becoming a smoker in youth. Boys who experience downward mobility tend to have a significantly higher inclination to smoke than their peers with a stable high education. These findings illustrate the potential public health benefits of investments in education and help identify high-risk groups for smoking onset. Full article
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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Kim, Y.W.; Lee, S.H.; Hwang, I.G.; Yoon, K.S. Effect of Temperature on Growth of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in Flounder, Salmon Sashimi and Oyster Meat. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 12, 4662-4675
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 3014; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10073014
Received: 9 July 2013 / Accepted: 16 July 2013 / Published: 18 July 2013
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Abstract
The authors wish to add the following correction on their paper published in IJERPH [1], doi: 10.3390/ijerph9124662, website: http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/9/12/4662. “Vibrio paraphemolyticus” in the article title should be “Vibrio parahaemolyticus”. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Impact of Health Insurance Programs on Out-of-Pocket Expenditures in Indonesia: An Increase or a Decrease?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 2995-3013; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10072995
Received: 30 April 2013 / Revised: 4 July 2013 / Accepted: 8 July 2013 / Published: 18 July 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (667 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We used panel data from the Indonesian Family Life Survey to investigate the impact of health insurance programs on reducing out-of-pocket expenditures. We employed three linear panel data models, two of which accounted for endogeneity: pooled ordinary least squares (OLS), pooled two-stage least
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We used panel data from the Indonesian Family Life Survey to investigate the impact of health insurance programs on reducing out-of-pocket expenditures. We employed three linear panel data models, two of which accounted for endogeneity: pooled ordinary least squares (OLS), pooled two-stage least squares (2SLS) for instrumental variable (IV), and fixed effects (FE). The study revealed that two health insurance programs had a significantly negative impact on out-of-pocket expenditures by using IV estimates. In the IV model, Askeskin decreased out-of-pocket expenditures by 34% and Askes by 55% compared with non-Askeskin and non-Askes, respectively, while Jamsostek was found to bear a nonsignificant effect on out-of-pocket expenditures. In the FE model, only Askeskin had a significant negative effect with an 11% reduction on out-of-pocket expenditures. This study showed that two large existing health insurance programs in Indonesia, Askeskin and Askes, effectively reduced household out-of-pocket expenditures. The ability of programs to offer financial protection by reducing out-of-pocket expenditures is likely to be a direct function of their benefits package and co-payment policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Economics)
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Open AccessArticle Estimation of Chlorophyll-a Concentration in Turbid Lake Using Spectral Smoothing and Derivative Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 2979-2994; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10072979
Received: 10 November 2012 / Revised: 4 February 2013 / Accepted: 18 February 2013 / Published: 16 July 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (631 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As a major indicator of lake eutrophication that is harmful to human health, the chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a) is often estimated using remote sensing, and one method often used is the spectral derivative algorithm. Direct derivative processing may magnify the noise, thus making spectral
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As a major indicator of lake eutrophication that is harmful to human health, the chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a) is often estimated using remote sensing, and one method often used is the spectral derivative algorithm. Direct derivative processing may magnify the noise, thus making spectral smoothing necessary. This study aims to use spectral smoothing as a pretreatment and to test the applicability of the spectral derivative algorithm for Chl-a estimation in Taihu Lake, China, based on the in situ hyperspectral reflectance. Data from July–August of 2004 were used to build the model, and data from July–August of 2005 and March of 2011 were used to validate the model, with Chl-a ranges of 5.0–156.0 mg/m3, 4.0–98.0 mg/m3 and 11.4–35.8 mg/m3, respectively. The derivative model was first used and then compared with the band ratio, three-band and four-band models. The results show that the first-order derivative model at 699 nm had satisfactory accuracy (R2 = 0.75) after kernel regression smoothing and had smaller validation root mean square errors of 15.21 mg/m3 in 2005 and 5.85 mg/m3 in 2011. The distribution map of Chl-a in Taihu Lake based on the HJ1/HSI image showed the actual distribution trend, indicating that the first-order derivative model after spectral smoothing can be used for Chl-a estimation in turbid lake. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Distal and Proximal Factors of Health Behaviors and Their Associations with Health in Children and Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 2944-2978; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10072944
Received: 22 May 2013 / Revised: 4 July 2013 / Accepted: 5 July 2013 / Published: 16 July 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (522 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Objective: The aim of the present paper was to analyze factors affecting distal and proximal health behavior within a biopsychosocial model for examining their interactions and associations with respect to health. Methods: Path analysis was based on the nationwide, cross-sectional German
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Objective: The aim of the present paper was to analyze factors affecting distal and proximal health behavior within a biopsychosocial model for examining their interactions and associations with respect to health. Methods: Path analysis was based on the nationwide, cross-sectional German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (2003 to 2006). The data was collected from 4,529 participants with an average age of 9.45 years (SD = 4.01). Socio-demographic data, psychosocial factors and health behavior were assessed via questionnaire. Participants also underwent physical fitness tests and a medical examination. Results: Over the five levels of the model analyzed with socioeconomic status, immigration background, and rural-urban differences on the first level; physical activity of relatives and peers, intrinsic motivation, and quality of life on the second level; eating patterns, sedentary behavior, and physical activity on the third level; physical fitness and objective health on the fourth level; and health complaints and subjective health on the fifth level; direct, moderation, and mediation effects could be shown. Conclusions: Several distal and proximal factors are needed to take account of the multivariate complexity of health: e.g., immigration background affected health behaviors only indirectly and the effect of physical activity on objective health was mediated by physical fitness. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Intuitive Approach to Understanding the Attributable Fraction of Disease Due to a Risk Factor: The Case of Smoking
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 2932-2943; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10072932
Received: 6 May 2013 / Revised: 27 June 2013 / Accepted: 28 June 2013 / Published: 16 July 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (396 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The health damage from tobacco use has been studied intensively, yet quantifying the precise burden of disease and death due to smoking is a complex problem, and consequently open to manipulation by interested parties. The goals of this paper are to clearly communicate
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The health damage from tobacco use has been studied intensively, yet quantifying the precise burden of disease and death due to smoking is a complex problem, and consequently open to manipulation by interested parties. The goals of this paper are to clearly communicate the concept of the attributable fraction (AF), i.e., the proportion of disease in a population which can be attributed to a risk factor, and to understand the relationship between the AF, the prevalence of exposure in a population, and the relative risk of disease given the exposure. The current approach to calculating the AF is summarized. An intuitive formula is proposed, with accompanying graphical illumination. For diseases caused by smoking, the AF of disease due to smoking increases with the prevalence of smoking and with the relative risk of disease due to smoking. The proposed method has the potential to help health professionals and decision makers understand the concept of the burden of disease due to smoking or other lifestyle, environmental, and occupational factors, in the context of public health importance. This will aid sound decision-making in public health policy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Assessing the Impact of a School Intervention to Promote Students’ Knowledge and Practices on Correct Antibiotic Use
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 2920-2931; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10072920
Received: 21 March 2013 / Revised: 24 May 2013 / Accepted: 28 June 2013 / Published: 15 July 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (242 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The clinical efficacy of antibiotics depends on their correct use. Widespread ignorance and inappropriate attitudes to antibiotic use have been identified among consumers. In order to improve the knowledge of middle-school students on antibiotics and their correct use, 82 ninth-grade students were enrolled
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The clinical efficacy of antibiotics depends on their correct use. Widespread ignorance and inappropriate attitudes to antibiotic use have been identified among consumers. In order to improve the knowledge of middle-school students on antibiotics and their correct use, 82 ninth-grade students were enrolled in a teaching activity. The teaching activity consisted of a slide show presentation followed by discussion in a regular class. To evaluate the impact of the teaching activity the students were asked to answer a questionnaire before and after the activity. This study aimed: (1) to evaluate knowledge on the use of antibiotics in students of two schools in the north of Portugal and (2) to evaluate the efficacy of the school intervention in improving students’ knowledge on correct antibiotic use. We found lack of knowledge among students regarding antibiotic spectra and indications and incorrect attitudes in the pre-test. Significant increases in knowledge were observed after implementation of the teaching activity. Knowledge of the correct use of antibiotics for bacterial diseases rather than viral diseases rose from 43% to 76% in the post-test (p < 0.01). Knowledge of the risk of bacterial resistance to antibiotics from their incorrect use rose from 48% to 74% in the post-test (p < 0.05). We believe that it is important to reinforce the teaching activities on microbiology and antibiotic use at the middle school level. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Association of Lone-Motherhood with Smoking Cessation and Relapse: Prospective Results from an Australian National Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 2906-2919; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10072906
Received: 20 May 2013 / Revised: 2 July 2013 / Accepted: 3 July 2013 / Published: 12 July 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (334 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aims were to examine the association of lone-motherhood with smoking cessation and relapse, and to investigate the extent to which this association was accounted for by socioeconomic status (education, occupation, and income), social support, and mental health. We used data from 10
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The aims were to examine the association of lone-motherhood with smoking cessation and relapse, and to investigate the extent to which this association was accounted for by socioeconomic status (education, occupation, and income), social support, and mental health. We used data from 10 yearly waves (2001 to 2010) of the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey. Response rate in the first wave was 66%. Logistic regression was used to examine the effect of lone-motherhood and other covariates on smoking cessation (n = 2,878) and relapse (n = 3,242). Results showed that the age-adjusted odds of smoking cessation were 32% smaller among lone mothers than partnered mothers (p = 0.004). The age-adjusted odds of relapse was 172% greater among lone mothers than partnered mothers (p < 0.001). We found that socioeconomic status, social support, and mental health account for some of the association of lone motherhood and cessation and relapse. While efforts to reduce the smoking prevalence among lone mothers should focus on their material deprivation, availability of social support, and addressing mental health issues, other factors unique to the lives of lone mothers also need to be taken into account. More research is needed to discover other factors that can explain the association of lone-motherhood and smoking behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Control in Vulnerable Population Groups)
Open AccessArticle Development of a Monoclonal Antibody-Based Sandwich ELISA for Peanut Allergen Ara h 1 in Food
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 2897-2905; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10072897
Received: 6 May 2013 / Revised: 17 June 2013 / Accepted: 3 July 2013 / Published: 12 July 2013
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (160 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have established a highly sensitive sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on two monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to measure the content of the major peanut allergen Ara h 1 in foods. Two mAbs were selected out of 12 murine hybridoma cells secreting Ara
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We have established a highly sensitive sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on two monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to measure the content of the major peanut allergen Ara h 1 in foods. Two mAbs were selected out of 12 murine hybridoma cells secreting Ara h 1-specific antibody. Using mAb 6 as the capture antibody and HRP-labelled mAb 4 as the detection antibody, the limit of detection (LOD) the assay was 0.34 ng/mL. Cross-reaction analysis showed that this method was strongly specific and had no cross-reactions with Ara h 2, pea protein or soy protein. Sample analysis showed that this ELISA was a useful tool to monitor peanut allergens in food products by measuring Ara h 1 content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Allergy, Genes and Environment)
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Open AccessCommunication Scoping the Impact of Changes in Population Age-Structure on the Future Burden of Foodborne Disease in The Netherlands, 2020–2060
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 2888-2896; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10072888
Received: 2 May 2013 / Revised: 17 June 2013 / Accepted: 28 June 2013 / Published: 11 July 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (179 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A demographic shift towards a larger proportion of elderly in the Dutch population in the coming decades might change foodborne disease incidence and mortality. In the current study we focused on the age-specific changes in the occurrence of foodborne pathogens by combining age-specific
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A demographic shift towards a larger proportion of elderly in the Dutch population in the coming decades might change foodborne disease incidence and mortality. In the current study we focused on the age-specific changes in the occurrence of foodborne pathogens by combining age-specific demographic forecasts for 10-year periods between 2020 and 2060 with current age-specific infection probabilities for Campylobacter spp., non-typhoidal Salmonella, hepatitis A virus, acquired Toxoplasma gondii and Listeria monocytogenes. Disease incidence rates for the former three pathogens were estimated to change marginally, because increases and decreases in specific age groups cancelled out over all ages. Estimated incidence of reported cases per 100,000 for 2060 mounted to 12 (Salmonella), 51 (Campylobacter), 1.1 (hepatitis A virus) and 2.1 (Toxoplasma). For L. monocytogenes, incidence increased by 45% from 0.41 per 100,000 in 2011 to 0.60 per 100,000. Estimated mortality rates increased two-fold for Salmonella and Campylobacter to 0.5 and 0.7 per 100,000, and increased by 25% for Listeria from 0.06 to 0.08. This straightforward scoping effort does not suggest major changes in incidence and mortality for these food borne pathogens based on changes in de population age-structure as independent factor. Other factors, such as changes in health care systems, social clustering and food processing and preparation, could not be included in the estimates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Safety and Public Health)
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Open AccessArticle Health Inequalities among Workers with a Foreign Background in Sweden: Do Working Conditions Matter?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 2871-2887; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10072871
Received: 3 June 2013 / Revised: 1 July 2013 / Accepted: 1 July 2013 / Published: 10 July 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (243 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Employment and working conditions are key social determinants of health, yet current information is lacking regarding relationships between foreign background status, working conditions and health among workers in Sweden. This study utilized cross-sectional data from the 2010 Swedish Level of Living Survey (LNU)
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Employment and working conditions are key social determinants of health, yet current information is lacking regarding relationships between foreign background status, working conditions and health among workers in Sweden. This study utilized cross-sectional data from the 2010 Swedish Level of Living Survey (LNU) and the Level of Living Survey for Foreign Born Persons and their Children (LNU-UFB) to assess whether or not health inequalities exist between native Swedish and foreign background workers and if exposure to adverse psychosocial and physical working conditions contributes to the risk for poor health among foreign background workers. A sub-sample of 4,021 employed individuals aged 18–65 was analyzed using logistic regression. Eastern European, Latin American and Other Non-Western workers had an increased risk of both poor self-rated health and mental distress compared to native Swedish workers. Exposure to adverse working conditions only minimally influenced the risk of poor health. Further research should examine workers who are less integrated or who have less secure labor market attachments and also investigate how additional working conditions may influence associations between health and foreign background status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inequalities in Health)
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Models Describing the Growth of Nalidixic Acid-Resistant E. coli O157:H7 in Blanched Spinach and Iceberg Lettuce as a Function of Temperature
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 2857-2870; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10072857
Received: 27 May 2013 / Revised: 1 July 2013 / Accepted: 3 July 2013 / Published: 9 July 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (431 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to model the growth of nalidixic acid-resistant E. coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7NR) in blanched spinach and to evaluate model performance with an independent set of data for interpolation (8.5, 13, 15 and 27
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The aim of this study was to model the growth of nalidixic acid-resistant E. coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7NR) in blanched spinach and to evaluate model performance with an independent set of data for interpolation (8.5, 13, 15 and 27 °C) and for extrapolation (broth and fresh-cut iceberg lettuce) using the ratio method and the acceptable prediction zone method. The lag time (LT), specific growth rate (SGR) and maximum population density (MPD) obtained from each primary model were modeled as a function of temperature (7, 10, 17, 24, 30, and 36 °C) using Davey, square root, and polynomial models, respectively. At 7 °C, the populations of E. coli O157:H7NR increased in tryptic soy broth with nalidixic acid (TSBN), blanched spinach and fresh-cut iceberg lettuce, while the populations of E. coli O157:H7 decreased in TSB after 118 h of LT, indicating the risk of nalidixic acid-resistant strain of E. coli O157:H7 contaminated in ready-to-eat produce at refrigerated temperature. When the LT and SGR models of blanched spinach was extended to iceberg lettuce, all relative errors (percentage of RE = 100%) were inside the acceptable prediction zone and had an acceptable Bf and Af values. Thus, it was concluded that developed secondary models for E. coli O157:H7NR in blanched spinach were suitable for use in making predictions for fresh cut iceberg lettuce, but not for static TSBN in this work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance Prevention and Control)
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