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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 10, Issue 7 (July 2013), Pages 2606-3088

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Open AccessArticle Socioeconomic Status Accounts for Rapidly Increasing Geographic Variation in the Incidence of Poor Fetal Growth
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 2606-2620; doi:10.3390/ijerph10072606
Received: 21 March 2013 / Revised: 3 June 2013 / Accepted: 12 June 2013 / Published: 25 June 2013
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Abstract
Fetal growth is an important risk factor for infant morbidity and mortality. In turn, socioeconomic status is a key predictor of fetal growth; however, other sociodemographic factors and environmental effects may also be important. This study modelled geographic variation in poor fetal [...] Read more.
Fetal growth is an important risk factor for infant morbidity and mortality. In turn, socioeconomic status is a key predictor of fetal growth; however, other sociodemographic factors and environmental effects may also be important. This study modelled geographic variation in poor fetal growth after accounting for socioeconomic status, with a fixed effect for socioeconomic status and a combination of spatially-correlated and spatially-uncorrelated random effects. The dataset comprised 88,246 liveborn singletons, aggregated within suburbs in Perth, Western Australia. Low socioeconomic status was strongly associated with an increased risk of poor fetal growth. An increase in geographic variation of poor fetal growth from 1999–2001 (interquartile odds ratio among suburbs = 1.20) to 2004–2006 (interquartile odds ratio = 1.40) indicated a widening risk disparity by socioeconomic status. Low levels of residual spatial patterns strengthen the case for targeting policies and practices in areas of low socioeconomic status for improved outcomes. This study indicates an alarming increase in geographic inequalities in poor fetal growth in Perth which warrants further research into the specific aspects of socioeconomic status that act as risk factors. Full article
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Ecotoxicological Risks Related to the Discharge of Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs) in a Periurban River
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 2670-2687; doi:10.3390/ijerph10072670
Received: 2 April 2013 / Revised: 3 June 2013 / Accepted: 20 June 2013 / Published: 28 June 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (268 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Discharges of Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs) into periurban rivers present risks for the concerned aquatic ecosystems. In this work, a specific ecotoxicological risk assessment methodology has been developed as management tool to municipalities equipped with CSOs. This methodology comprises a detailed description [...] Read more.
Discharges of Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs) into periurban rivers present risks for the concerned aquatic ecosystems. In this work, a specific ecotoxicological risk assessment methodology has been developed as management tool to municipalities equipped with CSOs. This methodology comprises a detailed description of the spatio-temporal system involved, the choice of ecological targets to be preserved, and carrying out bioassays adapted to each compartment of the river receiving CSOs. Once formulated, this methodology was applied to a river flowing through the outskirts of the city of Lyon in France. The results obtained for the scenario studied showed a moderate risk for organisms of the water column and a major risk for organisms of the benthic and hyporheic zones of the river. The methodology enabled identifying the critical points of the spatio-temporal systems studied, and then making proposals for improving the management of CSOs. Full article
Open AccessArticle Detection of β-Lactamase Residues in Milk by Sandwich ELISA
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 2688-2698; doi:10.3390/ijerph10072688
Received: 16 May 2013 / Revised: 9 June 2013 / Accepted: 17 June 2013 / Published: 28 June 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (374 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
β-Lactamase residues in milk represent a public health risk. The cylinder plate detection method, which is based on bacterial growth, is laborious and time consuming. In this study, 15 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were selected against Temoneira (TEM) 1 β-lactamase. A sandwich enzyme-linked [...] Read more.
β-Lactamase residues in milk represent a public health risk. The cylinder plate detection method, which is based on bacterial growth, is laborious and time consuming. In this study, 15 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were selected against Temoneira (TEM) 1 β-lactamase. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on an optimum mAb pair was developed and validated for the detection of β-lactamase. The limit of detection and linear dynamic range of the method were 4.17 ng/mL and 5.5–100 ng/mL, respectively. β-Lactamase recovery in pure milk was 96.82–103.13%. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 6.21–7.38% and 12.96–13.74%, respectively. Our developed sandwich ELISA can be used as a rapid detection method of β-lactamase in milk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Safety and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Land-Use Change and Emerging Infectious Disease on an Island Continent
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 2699-2719; doi:10.3390/ijerph10072699
Received: 7 April 2013 / Revised: 7 June 2013 / Accepted: 14 June 2013 / Published: 28 June 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (575 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A more rigorous and nuanced understanding of land-use change (LUC) as a driver of emerging infectious disease (EID) is required. Here we examine post hunter-gatherer LUC as a driver of infectious disease in one biogeographical region with a compressed and documented history—continental [...] Read more.
A more rigorous and nuanced understanding of land-use change (LUC) as a driver of emerging infectious disease (EID) is required. Here we examine post hunter-gatherer LUC as a driver of infectious disease in one biogeographical region with a compressed and documented history—continental Australia. We do this by examining land-use and native vegetation change (LUCC) associations with infectious disease emergence identified through a systematic (1973–2010) and historical (1788–1973) review of infectious disease literature of humans and animals. We find that 22% (20) of the systematically reviewed EIDs are associated with LUCC, most frequently where natural landscapes have been removed or replaced with agriculture, plantations, livestock or urban development. Historical clustering of vector-borne, zoonotic and environmental disease emergence also follows major periods of extensive land clearing. These advanced stages of LUCC are accompanied by changes in the distribution and density of hosts and vectors, at varying scales and chronology. This review of infectious disease emergence in one continent provides valuable insight into the association between accelerated global LUC and concurrent accelerated infectious disease emergence. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Optimization of Pulse-Field Gel Electrophoresis for Subtyping of Klebsiella pneumoniae
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 2720-2731; doi:10.3390/ijerph10072720
Received: 9 May 2013 / Revised: 5 June 2013 / Accepted: 13 June 2013 / Published: 1 July 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1172 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A total of 110 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae were used to optimize pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for subtyping of K. pneumoniae. For optimization of electrophoresis parameters (EPs) of XbaI-PFGE, 11 isolates were analyzed with XbaI digestion using three EPs. [...] Read more.
A total of 110 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae were used to optimize pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for subtyping of K. pneumoniae. For optimization of electrophoresis parameters (EPs) of XbaI-PFGE, 11 isolates were analyzed with XbaI digestion using three EPs. The EP of a switch time of 6 to 36 s for 18.5 h gave clearest patterns and was declared the optimal EP for XbaI PFGE of K. pneumoniae. By software analysis and pilot study, AvrII was chosen as another PFGE enzyme. Both XbaI- and AvrII-PFGE gave D-values higher than 0.99 for 69 K. pneumoniae isolated from different sources. Our results also showed good typeability, reproducibility of both XbaI- and AvrII-PFGE for K. pneumoniae subtyping. Furthermore, the established PFGE method also had good discriminatory power to distinguish outbreak K. pneumoniae strains and a high degree of consistency with multilocus sequence typing method. A rapid PFGE protocol was established here, which could be used for genotyping and other researches of K. pneumoniae. Full article
Open AccessArticle Quiet as an Environmental Value: A Contrast between Two Legislative Approaches
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 2741-2759; doi:10.3390/ijerph10072741
Received: 18 March 2013 / Revised: 20 June 2013 / Accepted: 24 June 2013 / Published: 3 July 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (469 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper examines the concept of “quiet” as an “environmental value” in terms of amenity and wellbeing from a legislative context. Critical review of two pieces of environmental legislation from Australia and New Zealand forms the basis of the paper. The Australian [...] Read more.
This paper examines the concept of “quiet” as an “environmental value” in terms of amenity and wellbeing from a legislative context. Critical review of two pieces of environmental legislation from Australia and New Zealand forms the basis of the paper. The Australian legislation is Queensland’s Environmental Protection Act, and the New Zealand legislation is that nation’s Resource Management Act. Quiet is part of the psychoacoustic continuum between a tranquil and an intrusively noisy sound environment. As such, quiet possesses intrinsic value in terms of overall sound within the environment (soundscape) and to individuals and communities. In both pieces of legislation, guidance, either directly or indirectly, is given to “maximum” sound levels to describe the acoustic environment. Only in Queensland is wellbeing and amenity described as environmental values, while in the New Zealand approach, amenity is identified as the core value to defend, but guidance is not well established. Wellbeing can be related to degrees of quietness and the absence of intrusive noise, the character of sound within an environment (“soundscape”), as well as the overall level of sound. The quality of life experienced by individuals is related to that person’s physical and mental health, sense of amenity and wellbeing. These characteristics can be described in terms of subjective and objective measures, though legislation does not always acknowledge the subjective. Full article
Open AccessArticle An Epidemiological Prospective Study of Children’s Health and Annoyance Reactions to Aircraft Noise Exposure in South Africa
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 2760-2777; doi:10.3390/ijerph10072760
Received: 28 March 2013 / Revised: 20 June 2013 / Accepted: 24 June 2013 / Published: 3 July 2013
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate health and annoyance reactions to change in chronic exposure to aircraft noise on a sample of South African children. It was the intention of this study to examine if effects of noise on health [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate health and annoyance reactions to change in chronic exposure to aircraft noise on a sample of South African children. It was the intention of this study to examine if effects of noise on health and annoyance can be demonstrated. If so, whether such effects persist over time, or whether such effects are reversible after the cessation of exposure to noise. A cohort of 732 children with a mean age of 11.1 (range = 8–14) participated at baseline measurements in Wave 1 (2009), and 649 (mean age = 12.3; range = 9–15) and 174 (mean age = 13.3; range = 10–16) children were reassessed in Wave 2 (2010) and Wave 3 (2011) after the relocation of the airport, respectively. The findings revealed that the children who were exposed to chronic aircraft noise continued to experience significantly higher annoyance than their counterparts in all the waves at school, and only in Wave 1 and Wave 2 at home. Aircraft noise exposure did not have adverse effects on the children’s self-reported health outcomes. Taken together, these findings suggest that chronic exposure to aircraft noise may have a lasting impact on children’s annoyance, but not on their subjective health rating. This is one of the first longitudinal studies of this nature in the African continent to make use of an opportunity resulting from the relocation of airport. Full article
Open AccessArticle Use Patterns of Leave-on Personal Care Products among Swiss-German Children, Adolescents, and Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 2778-2798; doi:10.3390/ijerph10072778
Received: 25 May 2013 / Revised: 17 June 2013 / Accepted: 20 June 2013 / Published: 3 July 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1338 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In order to model exposure to ingredients contained in personal care products (PCPs) and assess their potential risks to human health, access to reliable PCP use data, including co-use patterns, is essential. A postal questionnaire survey was conducted to determine the use [...] Read more.
In order to model exposure to ingredients contained in personal care products (PCPs) and assess their potential risks to human health, access to reliable PCP use data, including co-use patterns, is essential. A postal questionnaire survey was conducted to determine the use patterns of eight leave-on PCP categories among the German-speaking population of Switzerland (N = 1,196; ages 0–97 years), providing for the first time in Europe PCP use data for children <12 years of age. The majority of respondents (99%) reported having used at least one of the investigated PCP categories in the past year. Co-use of two or more PCP categories at the same time was common and more complex amongst adults. Regular use of face cream and body lotion was very high in the youngest group of children aged 0–4 years (more than 79% respondents) who may be more vulnerable to certain adverse effects of some PCP ingredients. A comparison with previously collected information on PCP use patterns in Germany and the Netherlands indicates differences in PCP use patterns among European consumers and suggests that surrogate PCP use data from other countries must be used with caution. This work extends the existing knowledge of PCP use patterns and will be useful for new exposure assessments for ingredients contained in PCPs used by the young consumers. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Bayesian Approach to Estimate the Prevalence of Schistosomiasis japonica Infection in the Hubei Province Lake Regions, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 2799-2812; doi:10.3390/ijerph10072799
Received: 1 April 2013 / Revised: 26 June 2013 / Accepted: 27 June 2013 / Published: 5 July 2013
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Abstract
A Bayesian inference model was introduced to estimate community prevalence of Schistosomiasis japonica infection based on the data of a large-scale survey of Schistosomiasis japonica in the lake region in Hubei Province. A multistage cluster random sampling approach was applied to the [...] Read more.
A Bayesian inference model was introduced to estimate community prevalence of Schistosomiasis japonica infection based on the data of a large-scale survey of Schistosomiasis japonica in the lake region in Hubei Province. A multistage cluster random sampling approach was applied to the endemic villages in the lake regions of Hubei Province in 2011. IHA test and Kato-Katz test were applied for the detection of the S. japonica infection in the sampled population. Expert knowledge on sensitivities and specificities of IHA test and Kato-Katz test were collected based on a two-round interview. Prevalence of S. japonica infection was estimated by a Bayesian hierarchical model in two different situations. In Situation 1, Bayesian estimation used both IHA test data and Kato-Katz test data to estimate the prevalence of S. japonica. In Situation 2, only IHA test data was used for Bayesian estimation. Finally 14 cities and 46 villages from the lake regions of Hubei Province including 50,980 residents were sampled. Sensitivity and specificity for IHA test ranged from 80% to 90% and 70% to 80%, respectively. For the Kato-Katz test, sensitivity and specificity were from 20% to 70% and 90% to 100%, respectively. Similar estimated prevalence was obtained in the two situations. Estimated prevalence among sampled villages was almost below 13% in both situations and varied from 0.95% to 12.26% when only using data from the IHA test. The study indicated that it is feasible to apply IHA test only combining with Bayesian method to estimate the prevalence of S. japonica infection in large-scale surveys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Determinants of Infectious Disease Transmission)
Open AccessArticle Circulating Nitrite and Nitrate are Associated with Job-Related Fatigue in Women, but not in Men
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 2813-2824; doi:10.3390/ijerph10072813
Received: 29 May 2013 / Revised: 23 June 2013 / Accepted: 26 June 2013 / Published: 5 July 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (225 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A recent study indicated that serum nitrite and nitrate (NOx) is inversely associated with general fatigue. The purpose of this study was to confirm the negative association between nitric oxide (NO) and fatigue and to examine whether NO can prevent [...] Read more.
A recent study indicated that serum nitrite and nitrate (NOx) is inversely associated with general fatigue. The purpose of this study was to confirm the negative association between nitric oxide (NO) and fatigue and to examine whether NO can prevent fatigue caused by job strain. The subjects, 570 workers (272 men and 298 women), answered self-administered questionnaires and underwent a medical examination. Job strain was measured using the Job Content Questionnaire. Fatigue was evaluated using the Profile of Mood States. Venous blood samples were collected after overnight fasting. Plasma NOx concentration was determined by the ozone-based chemiluminescence assay. Plasma NOx levels were significantly (p < 0.05) negatively associated with fatigue even after adjustment for job strain and potential confounders in women, but not in men. Significant (p < 0.05) interactions showed that, in women, as the level of the job strain worsened, fatigue was exacerbated, but the plasma NOx seemed to buffer the association, even after adjustment for potential confounders and the interaction between job strain and vegetable intake. In women, NO seemed to be inversely associated with fatigue and to buffer the association between job strain and fatigue, but not in men. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Job Stress and Health)
Open AccessArticle Seasonal Differences in the Day-of-the-Week Pattern of Suicide in Queensland, Australia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 2825-2833; doi:10.3390/ijerph10072825
Received: 20 May 2013 / Revised: 18 June 2013 / Accepted: 21 June 2013 / Published: 8 July 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (418 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Various temporal patterns of suicide events, according to time of day, day of week, month and season, have been identified. However, whether different dimensions of time interact has not been investigated. Using suicide data from Queensland, Australia, this study aims to verify [...] Read more.
Various temporal patterns of suicide events, according to time of day, day of week, month and season, have been identified. However, whether different dimensions of time interact has not been investigated. Using suicide data from Queensland, Australia, this study aims to verify if there is an interaction effect between seasonal and day-of-the-week distribution. Computerized suicide data from the Queensland Suicide Register for those aged 15+ years were analyzed according to date of death, age, sex and geographic location for the period 1996–2007. To examine seasonal differences in day-of-the-week pattern of suicide, Poisson regressions were used. A total of 6,555 suicides were recorded over the whole study period. Regardless of the season, male residents of Brisbane had a significantly marked day-of-the-week pattern of suicide, with higher rates between Mondays and Thursdays. When seasonal differences were considered, male residents in Brisbane showed a Monday peak in summer and a wave-shape pattern with a peak on Thursday and a nadir on Saturdays in winter. Whilst males have distinctive peaks in terms of days of the week for summer and winter, females do not show similar patterns. Full article
Open AccessArticle Protective Effects of Sodium Selenite against Aflatoxin B1-Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Broiler Spleen
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 2834-2844; doi:10.3390/ijerph10072834
Received: 20 May 2013 / Revised: 19 June 2013 / Accepted: 19 June 2013 / Published: 9 July 2013
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (196 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of sodium selenite on aflatoxin B1-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in spleen of broilers. Two hundred one-day-old male broilers, divided into five groups, were fed with basal diet [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of sodium selenite on aflatoxin B1-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in spleen of broilers. Two hundred one-day-old male broilers, divided into five groups, were fed with basal diet (control group), 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 (AFB1 group), 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 + 0.2 mg/kg Se (+Se group I), 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 + 0.4 mg/kg Se (+Se group II) and 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 + 0.6 mg/kg Se (+Se group III), respectively. According to biochemical assays, AFB1 significantly decreased the activities of glutathione peroxidase, total superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, catalase and the level of glutathione hormone, while it increased the level of malondialdehyde. Moreover, AFB1 increased the percentage of apoptosis cells by flow cytometry and the occurrence of apoptotic cells by TUNEL assay. Simultaneous supplementation with sodium selenite restored these parameters to be close to those in control group. In conclusion, sodium selenite exhibited protective effects on AFB1-induced splenic toxicity in broilers by inhibiting oxidative stress and excessive apoptosis. Full article
Open AccessArticle Determinants of Childhood Immunization Uptake among Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Migrants in East China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 2845-2856; doi:10.3390/ijerph10072845
Received: 14 March 2013 / Revised: 27 May 2013 / Accepted: 28 June 2013 / Published: 9 July 2013
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (407 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Objective: To determine the coverage of childhood immunization appropriate for age among socio-economically disadvantaged recent migrants living in East China and to identify the determinants of full immunization uptake among these migrant children. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey of [...] Read more.
Objective: To determine the coverage of childhood immunization appropriate for age among socio-economically disadvantaged recent migrants living in East China and to identify the determinants of full immunization uptake among these migrant children. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey of 1,426 migrant mothers with a child aged ≤24 months, who were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Various vaccines, migration history and some other social-demographic and income details were collected. Single-level logistic regression analyses were applied to identify the determinants of full immunization status. Results: Immunization coverage rates are lower among migrants and even lower among recent migrants. The likelihood of a child receiving full immunization rise with parents’ educational level and the frequency of mother’s utilization of health care. Higher household income also significantly increase the likelihood of full immunization, as dose post-natal visits by a health worker. Conclusions: Recent migrant status favours low immunization uptake, particularly in the vulnerability context of alienation and livelihood insecurity. Services must be delivered with a focus on recent migrants. Investments are needed in education, socio-economic development and secure livelihoods to improve and sustain equitable health care services. Full article
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Models Describing the Growth of Nalidixic Acid-Resistant E. coli O157:H7 in Blanched Spinach and Iceberg Lettuce as a Function of Temperature
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 2857-2870; doi:10.3390/ijerph10072857
Received: 27 May 2013 / Revised: 1 July 2013 / Accepted: 3 July 2013 / Published: 9 July 2013
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to model the growth of nalidixic acid-resistant E. coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7NR) in blanched spinach and to evaluate model performance with an independent set of data for interpolation (8.5, 13, 15 and [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to model the growth of nalidixic acid-resistant E. coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7NR) in blanched spinach and to evaluate model performance with an independent set of data for interpolation (8.5, 13, 15 and 27 °C) and for extrapolation (broth and fresh-cut iceberg lettuce) using the ratio method and the acceptable prediction zone method. The lag time (LT), specific growth rate (SGR) and maximum population density (MPD) obtained from each primary model were modeled as a function of temperature (7, 10, 17, 24, 30, and 36 °C) using Davey, square root, and polynomial models, respectively. At 7 °C, the populations of E. coli O157:H7NR increased in tryptic soy broth with nalidixic acid (TSBN), blanched spinach and fresh-cut iceberg lettuce, while the populations of E. coli O157:H7 decreased in TSB after 118 h of LT, indicating the risk of nalidixic acid-resistant strain of E. coli O157:H7 contaminated in ready-to-eat produce at refrigerated temperature. When the LT and SGR models of blanched spinach was extended to iceberg lettuce, all relative errors (percentage of RE = 100%) were inside the acceptable prediction zone and had an acceptable Bf and Af values. Thus, it was concluded that developed secondary models for E. coli O157:H7NR in blanched spinach were suitable for use in making predictions for fresh cut iceberg lettuce, but not for static TSBN in this work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance Prevention and Control)
Open AccessArticle Health Inequalities among Workers with a Foreign Background in Sweden: Do Working Conditions Matter?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 2871-2887; doi:10.3390/ijerph10072871
Received: 3 June 2013 / Revised: 1 July 2013 / Accepted: 1 July 2013 / Published: 10 July 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (243 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Employment and working conditions are key social determinants of health, yet current information is lacking regarding relationships between foreign background status, working conditions and health among workers in Sweden. This study utilized cross-sectional data from the 2010 Swedish Level of Living Survey [...] Read more.
Employment and working conditions are key social determinants of health, yet current information is lacking regarding relationships between foreign background status, working conditions and health among workers in Sweden. This study utilized cross-sectional data from the 2010 Swedish Level of Living Survey (LNU) and the Level of Living Survey for Foreign Born Persons and their Children (LNU-UFB) to assess whether or not health inequalities exist between native Swedish and foreign background workers and if exposure to adverse psychosocial and physical working conditions contributes to the risk for poor health among foreign background workers. A sub-sample of 4,021 employed individuals aged 18–65 was analyzed using logistic regression. Eastern European, Latin American and Other Non-Western workers had an increased risk of both poor self-rated health and mental distress compared to native Swedish workers. Exposure to adverse working conditions only minimally influenced the risk of poor health. Further research should examine workers who are less integrated or who have less secure labor market attachments and also investigate how additional working conditions may influence associations between health and foreign background status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inequalities in Health)
Open AccessCommunication Scoping the Impact of Changes in Population Age-Structure on the Future Burden of Foodborne Disease in The Netherlands, 2020–2060
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 2888-2896; doi:10.3390/ijerph10072888
Received: 2 May 2013 / Revised: 17 June 2013 / Accepted: 28 June 2013 / Published: 11 July 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (179 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A demographic shift towards a larger proportion of elderly in the Dutch population in the coming decades might change foodborne disease incidence and mortality. In the current study we focused on the age-specific changes in the occurrence of foodborne pathogens by combining [...] Read more.
A demographic shift towards a larger proportion of elderly in the Dutch population in the coming decades might change foodborne disease incidence and mortality. In the current study we focused on the age-specific changes in the occurrence of foodborne pathogens by combining age-specific demographic forecasts for 10-year periods between 2020 and 2060 with current age-specific infection probabilities for Campylobacter spp., non-typhoidal Salmonella, hepatitis A virus, acquired Toxoplasma gondii and Listeria monocytogenes. Disease incidence rates for the former three pathogens were estimated to change marginally, because increases and decreases in specific age groups cancelled out over all ages. Estimated incidence of reported cases per 100,000 for 2060 mounted to 12 (Salmonella), 51 (Campylobacter), 1.1 (hepatitis A virus) and 2.1 (Toxoplasma). For L. monocytogenes, incidence increased by 45% from 0.41 per 100,000 in 2011 to 0.60 per 100,000. Estimated mortality rates increased two-fold for Salmonella and Campylobacter to 0.5 and 0.7 per 100,000, and increased by 25% for Listeria from 0.06 to 0.08. This straightforward scoping effort does not suggest major changes in incidence and mortality for these food borne pathogens based on changes in de population age-structure as independent factor. Other factors, such as changes in health care systems, social clustering and food processing and preparation, could not be included in the estimates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Safety and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Development of a Monoclonal Antibody-Based Sandwich ELISA for Peanut Allergen Ara h 1 in Food
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 2897-2905; doi:10.3390/ijerph10072897
Received: 6 May 2013 / Revised: 17 June 2013 / Accepted: 3 July 2013 / Published: 12 July 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (160 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have established a highly sensitive sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on two monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to measure the content of the major peanut allergen Ara h 1 in foods. Two mAbs were selected out of 12 murine hybridoma cells secreting [...] Read more.
We have established a highly sensitive sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on two monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to measure the content of the major peanut allergen Ara h 1 in foods. Two mAbs were selected out of 12 murine hybridoma cells secreting Ara h 1-specific antibody. Using mAb 6 as the capture antibody and HRP-labelled mAb 4 as the detection antibody, the limit of detection (LOD) the assay was 0.34 ng/mL. Cross-reaction analysis showed that this method was strongly specific and had no cross-reactions with Ara h 2, pea protein or soy protein. Sample analysis showed that this ELISA was a useful tool to monitor peanut allergens in food products by measuring Ara h 1 content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Allergy, Genes and Environment)
Open AccessArticle The Association of Lone-Motherhood with Smoking Cessation and Relapse: Prospective Results from an Australian National Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 2906-2919; doi:10.3390/ijerph10072906
Received: 20 May 2013 / Revised: 2 July 2013 / Accepted: 3 July 2013 / Published: 12 July 2013
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Abstract
The aims were to examine the association of lone-motherhood with smoking cessation and relapse, and to investigate the extent to which this association was accounted for by socioeconomic status (education, occupation, and income), social support, and mental health. We used data from [...] Read more.
The aims were to examine the association of lone-motherhood with smoking cessation and relapse, and to investigate the extent to which this association was accounted for by socioeconomic status (education, occupation, and income), social support, and mental health. We used data from 10 yearly waves (2001 to 2010) of the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey. Response rate in the first wave was 66%. Logistic regression was used to examine the effect of lone-motherhood and other covariates on smoking cessation (n = 2,878) and relapse (n = 3,242). Results showed that the age-adjusted odds of smoking cessation were 32% smaller among lone mothers than partnered mothers (p = 0.004). The age-adjusted odds of relapse was 172% greater among lone mothers than partnered mothers (p < 0.001). We found that socioeconomic status, social support, and mental health account for some of the association of lone motherhood and cessation and relapse. While efforts to reduce the smoking prevalence among lone mothers should focus on their material deprivation, availability of social support, and addressing mental health issues, other factors unique to the lives of lone mothers also need to be taken into account. More research is needed to discover other factors that can explain the association of lone-motherhood and smoking behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Control in Vulnerable Population Groups)
Open AccessArticle Assessing the Impact of a School Intervention to Promote Students’ Knowledge and Practices on Correct Antibiotic Use
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 2920-2931; doi:10.3390/ijerph10072920
Received: 21 March 2013 / Revised: 24 May 2013 / Accepted: 28 June 2013 / Published: 15 July 2013
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Abstract
The clinical efficacy of antibiotics depends on their correct use. Widespread ignorance and inappropriate attitudes to antibiotic use have been identified among consumers. In order to improve the knowledge of middle-school students on antibiotics and their correct use, 82 ninth-grade students were [...] Read more.
The clinical efficacy of antibiotics depends on their correct use. Widespread ignorance and inappropriate attitudes to antibiotic use have been identified among consumers. In order to improve the knowledge of middle-school students on antibiotics and their correct use, 82 ninth-grade students were enrolled in a teaching activity. The teaching activity consisted of a slide show presentation followed by discussion in a regular class. To evaluate the impact of the teaching activity the students were asked to answer a questionnaire before and after the activity. This study aimed: (1) to evaluate knowledge on the use of antibiotics in students of two schools in the north of Portugal and (2) to evaluate the efficacy of the school intervention in improving students’ knowledge on correct antibiotic use. We found lack of knowledge among students regarding antibiotic spectra and indications and incorrect attitudes in the pre-test. Significant increases in knowledge were observed after implementation of the teaching activity. Knowledge of the correct use of antibiotics for bacterial diseases rather than viral diseases rose from 43% to 76% in the post-test (p < 0.01). Knowledge of the risk of bacterial resistance to antibiotics from their incorrect use rose from 48% to 74% in the post-test (p < 0.05). We believe that it is important to reinforce the teaching activities on microbiology and antibiotic use at the middle school level. Full article
Open AccessArticle An Intuitive Approach to Understanding the Attributable Fraction of Disease Due to a Risk Factor: The Case of Smoking
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 2932-2943; doi:10.3390/ijerph10072932
Received: 6 May 2013 / Revised: 27 June 2013 / Accepted: 28 June 2013 / Published: 16 July 2013
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Abstract
The health damage from tobacco use has been studied intensively, yet quantifying the precise burden of disease and death due to smoking is a complex problem, and consequently open to manipulation by interested parties. The goals of this paper are to clearly [...] Read more.
The health damage from tobacco use has been studied intensively, yet quantifying the precise burden of disease and death due to smoking is a complex problem, and consequently open to manipulation by interested parties. The goals of this paper are to clearly communicate the concept of the attributable fraction (AF), i.e., the proportion of disease in a population which can be attributed to a risk factor, and to understand the relationship between the AF, the prevalence of exposure in a population, and the relative risk of disease given the exposure. The current approach to calculating the AF is summarized. An intuitive formula is proposed, with accompanying graphical illumination. For diseases caused by smoking, the AF of disease due to smoking increases with the prevalence of smoking and with the relative risk of disease due to smoking. The proposed method has the potential to help health professionals and decision makers understand the concept of the burden of disease due to smoking or other lifestyle, environmental, and occupational factors, in the context of public health importance. This will aid sound decision-making in public health policy. Full article
Open AccessArticle Distal and Proximal Factors of Health Behaviors and Their Associations with Health in Children and Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 2944-2978; doi:10.3390/ijerph10072944
Received: 22 May 2013 / Revised: 4 July 2013 / Accepted: 5 July 2013 / Published: 16 July 2013
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Abstract
Objective: The aim of the present paper was to analyze factors affecting distal and proximal health behavior within a biopsychosocial model for examining their interactions and associations with respect to health. Methods: Path analysis was based on the nationwide, cross-sectional [...] Read more.
Objective: The aim of the present paper was to analyze factors affecting distal and proximal health behavior within a biopsychosocial model for examining their interactions and associations with respect to health. Methods: Path analysis was based on the nationwide, cross-sectional German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (2003 to 2006). The data was collected from 4,529 participants with an average age of 9.45 years (SD = 4.01). Socio-demographic data, psychosocial factors and health behavior were assessed via questionnaire. Participants also underwent physical fitness tests and a medical examination. Results: Over the five levels of the model analyzed with socioeconomic status, immigration background, and rural-urban differences on the first level; physical activity of relatives and peers, intrinsic motivation, and quality of life on the second level; eating patterns, sedentary behavior, and physical activity on the third level; physical fitness and objective health on the fourth level; and health complaints and subjective health on the fifth level; direct, moderation, and mediation effects could be shown. Conclusions: Several distal and proximal factors are needed to take account of the multivariate complexity of health: e.g., immigration background affected health behaviors only indirectly and the effect of physical activity on objective health was mediated by physical fitness. Full article
Open AccessArticle Estimation of Chlorophyll-a Concentration in Turbid Lake Using Spectral Smoothing and Derivative Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 2979-2994; doi:10.3390/ijerph10072979
Received: 10 November 2012 / Revised: 4 February 2013 / Accepted: 18 February 2013 / Published: 16 July 2013
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Abstract
As a major indicator of lake eutrophication that is harmful to human health, the chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a) is often estimated using remote sensing, and one method often used is the spectral derivative algorithm. Direct derivative processing may magnify the noise, thus making [...] Read more.
As a major indicator of lake eutrophication that is harmful to human health, the chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a) is often estimated using remote sensing, and one method often used is the spectral derivative algorithm. Direct derivative processing may magnify the noise, thus making spectral smoothing necessary. This study aims to use spectral smoothing as a pretreatment and to test the applicability of the spectral derivative algorithm for Chl-a estimation in Taihu Lake, China, based on the in situ hyperspectral reflectance. Data from July–August of 2004 were used to build the model, and data from July–August of 2005 and March of 2011 were used to validate the model, with Chl-a ranges of 5.0–156.0 mg/m3, 4.0–98.0 mg/m3 and 11.4–35.8 mg/m3, respectively. The derivative model was first used and then compared with the band ratio, three-band and four-band models. The results show that the first-order derivative model at 699 nm had satisfactory accuracy (R2 = 0.75) after kernel regression smoothing and had smaller validation root mean square errors of 15.21 mg/m3 in 2005 and 5.85 mg/m3 in 2011. The distribution map of Chl-a in Taihu Lake based on the HJ1/HSI image showed the actual distribution trend, indicating that the first-order derivative model after spectral smoothing can be used for Chl-a estimation in turbid lake. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Impact of Health Insurance Programs on Out-of-Pocket Expenditures in Indonesia: An Increase or a Decrease?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 2995-3013; doi:10.3390/ijerph10072995
Received: 30 April 2013 / Revised: 4 July 2013 / Accepted: 8 July 2013 / Published: 18 July 2013
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Abstract
We used panel data from the Indonesian Family Life Survey to investigate the impact of health insurance programs on reducing out-of-pocket expenditures. We employed three linear panel data models, two of which accounted for endogeneity: pooled ordinary least squares (OLS), pooled two-stage [...] Read more.
We used panel data from the Indonesian Family Life Survey to investigate the impact of health insurance programs on reducing out-of-pocket expenditures. We employed three linear panel data models, two of which accounted for endogeneity: pooled ordinary least squares (OLS), pooled two-stage least squares (2SLS) for instrumental variable (IV), and fixed effects (FE). The study revealed that two health insurance programs had a significantly negative impact on out-of-pocket expenditures by using IV estimates. In the IV model, Askeskin decreased out-of-pocket expenditures by 34% and Askes by 55% compared with non-Askeskin and non-Askes, respectively, while Jamsostek was found to bear a nonsignificant effect on out-of-pocket expenditures. In the FE model, only Askeskin had a significant negative effect with an 11% reduction on out-of-pocket expenditures. This study showed that two large existing health insurance programs in Indonesia, Askeskin and Askes, effectively reduced household out-of-pocket expenditures. The ability of programs to offer financial protection by reducing out-of-pocket expenditures is likely to be a direct function of their benefits package and co-payment policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Economics)
Open AccessArticle Educational Differences in Smoking among Adolescents in Germany: What is the Role of Parental and Adolescent Education Levels and Intergenerational Educational Mobility?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 3015-3032; doi:10.3390/ijerph10073015
Received: 21 June 2013 / Revised: 15 July 2013 / Accepted: 16 July 2013 / Published: 19 July 2013
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Abstract
Background: Adolescence is the period in which smoking onset usually occurs and the course for future socioeconomic status (SES) is set. However, because of the transitional nature of adolescence, it is questionable whether health inequalities are best measured by indicators of [...] Read more.
Background: Adolescence is the period in which smoking onset usually occurs and the course for future socioeconomic status (SES) is set. However, because of the transitional nature of adolescence, it is questionable whether health inequalities are best measured by indicators of parental SES or rather by indicators of the adolescents’ own developing SES. We examine the independent effects of parental and adolescent education and intergenerational educational mobility on adolescent smoking behaviour while controlling for differences in parental and close friends’ smoking behaviour. Methods: The study is based on data from a subsample (12–17 years, n = 5,053) of the nationally representative German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Participants reported their education level as well as their personal and close friends’ smoking behaviour. Information on parental education and smoking behaviour was obtained via parent interviews. Adolescent and parental education data were dichotomized (low/high), leading to four categories of intergenerational educational mobility: stable high, potentially upwardly mobile, potentially downwardly mobile, and stable low. Results: After adjustment for parental and close friends’ smoking behaviour, adolescent smoking habits were strongly related to their personal education level, but not that of their parents. Among boys, both stable low and downwardly mobile adolescents had a 2.7-fold increased risk of being a smoker compared with peers with a stable high education. Among girls, only those with a stable low education had a 2.2-fold increased risk of smoking. Among both genders, educational upward mobility was associated with significantly lower smoking rates compared with peers with a stable low education (boys: OR 0.32; 95% CI 0.20–0.53; girls: OR 0.52; 95% CI 0.37–0.73). Conclusions: Our results show that the risk of an adolescent smoking is influenced by their own education level rather than that of their parents. Educational upward mobility seems to be protective against becoming a smoker in youth. Boys who experience downward mobility tend to have a significantly higher inclination to smoke than their peers with a stable high education. These findings illustrate the potential public health benefits of investments in education and help identify high-risk groups for smoking onset. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Modeling Monthly Variation of Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae) Abundance and West Nile Virus Infection Rate in the Canadian Prairies
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 3033-3051; doi:10.3390/ijerph10073033
Received: 7 June 2013 / Revised: 15 July 2013 / Accepted: 16 July 2013 / Published: 22 July 2013
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Abstract
The Canadian prairie provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba have generally reported the highest human incidence of West Nile virus (WNV) in Canada. In this study, environmental and biotic factors were used to predict numbers of Culex tarsalis Coquillett, which is the [...] Read more.
The Canadian prairie provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba have generally reported the highest human incidence of West Nile virus (WNV) in Canada. In this study, environmental and biotic factors were used to predict numbers of Culex tarsalis Coquillett, which is the primary mosquito vector of WNV in this region, and prevalence of WNV infection in Cx. tarsalis in the Canadian prairies. The results showed that higher mean temperature and elevated time lagged mean temperature were associated with increased numbers of Cx. tarsalis and higher WNV infection rates. However, increasing precipitation was associated with higher abundance of Cx. tarsalis and lower WNV infection rate. In addition, this study found that increased temperature fluctuation and wetland land cover were associated with decreased infection rate in the Cx. tarsalis population. The resulting monthly models can be used to inform public health interventions by improving the predictions of population abundance of Cx. tarsalis and the transmission intensity of WNV in the Canadian prairies. Furthermore, these models can also be used to examine the potential effects of climate change on the vector population abundance and the distribution of WNV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology of West Nile Virus)
Open AccessArticle Climate Change and West Nile Virus in a Highly Endemic Region of North America
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 3052-3071; doi:10.3390/ijerph10073052
Received: 7 April 2013 / Revised: 25 April 2013 / Accepted: 14 May 2013 / Published: 22 July 2013
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Abstract
The Canadian prairie provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta have reported the highest human incidence of clinical cases of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in Canada. The primary vector for WVN in this region is the mosquito Culex tarsalis. This study used [...] Read more.
The Canadian prairie provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta have reported the highest human incidence of clinical cases of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in Canada. The primary vector for WVN in this region is the mosquito Culex tarsalis. This study used constructed models and biological thresholds to predict the spatial and temporal distribution of Cx. tarsalis and WNV infection rate in the prairie provinces under a range of potential future climate and habitat conditions. We selected one median and two extreme outcome scenarios to represent future climate conditions in the 2020 (2010–2039), 2050 (2040–2069) and 2080 (2070–2099) time slices. In currently endemic regions, the projected WNV infection rate under the median outcome scenario in 2050 raised 17.91 times (ranged from 1.29–27.45 times for all scenarios and time slices) comparing to current climate conditions. Seasonal availability of Cx. tarsalis infected with WNV extended from June to August to include May and September. Moreover, our models predicted northward range expansion for Cx. tarsalis (1.06–2.56 times the current geographic area) and WNV (1.08–2.34 times the current geographic area). These findings predict future public and animal health risk of WNV in the Canadian prairie provinces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology of West Nile Virus)
Open AccessArticle Care Networking: A Study of Technical Mediations in a Home Telecare Service
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 3072-3088; doi:10.3390/ijerph10073072
Received: 22 May 2013 / Revised: 5 July 2013 / Accepted: 9 July 2013 / Published: 22 July 2013
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Abstract
This article examines the processes of technical mediation within familial care networks based on a study of home telecare targeted at older people. Supported by contributions from the actor—network theory as part of the social psychology of science and technology, these processes [...] Read more.
This article examines the processes of technical mediation within familial care networks based on a study of home telecare targeted at older people. Supported by contributions from the actor—network theory as part of the social psychology of science and technology, these processes of technical mediation are analyzed using a qualitative approach. The data were gathered through six focus groups and four in-depth interviews; the participants in the study included users, relatives and formal carers. Thematic analysis techniques encompassing the information were used, revealing the effects on the patterns of caring relationships. The results show the interplay between presence-absence made possible by the devices; the two-way direction of care between the older people and the artifacts; and the process of sustaining care using the technology. We conclude that care should be seen as a socio-technical network where technology plays an active role in sustaining family relationships. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Telehealthcare)

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Open AccessReview Perspectives to Performance of Environment and Health Assessments and Models—From Outputs to Outcomes?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 2621-2642; doi:10.3390/ijerph10072621
Received: 8 April 2013 / Revised: 7 June 2013 / Accepted: 8 June 2013 / Published: 26 June 2013
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Abstract
The calls for knowledge-based policy and policy-relevant research invoke a need to evaluate and manage environment and health assessments and models according to their societal outcomes. This review explores how well the existing approaches to assessment and model performance serve this need. [...] Read more.
The calls for knowledge-based policy and policy-relevant research invoke a need to evaluate and manage environment and health assessments and models according to their societal outcomes. This review explores how well the existing approaches to assessment and model performance serve this need. The perspectives to assessment and model performance in the scientific literature can be called: (1) quality assurance/control, (2) uncertainty analysis, (3) technical assessment of models, (4) effectiveness and (5) other perspectives, according to what is primarily seen to constitute the goodness of assessments and models. The categorization is not strict and methods, tools and frameworks in different perspectives may overlap. However, altogether it seems that most approaches to assessment and model performance are relatively narrow in their scope. The focus in most approaches is on the outputs and making of assessments and models. Practical application of the outputs and the consequential outcomes are often left unaddressed. It appears that more comprehensive approaches that combine the essential characteristics of different perspectives are needed. This necessitates a better account of the mechanisms of collective knowledge creation and the relations between knowledge and practical action. Some new approaches to assessment, modeling and their evaluation and management span the chain from knowledge creation to societal outcomes, but the complexity of evaluating societal outcomes remains a challenge. Full article
Open AccessReview Antimicrobial Resistance in the Food Chain: A Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 2643-2669; doi:10.3390/ijerph10072643
Received: 24 April 2013 / Revised: 14 June 2013 / Accepted: 17 June 2013 / Published: 28 June 2013
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Abstract
Antimicrobial resistant zoonotic pathogens present on food constitute a direct risk to public health. Antimicrobial resistance genes in commensal or pathogenic strains form an indirect risk to public health, as they increase the gene pool from which pathogenic bacteria can pick up [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistant zoonotic pathogens present on food constitute a direct risk to public health. Antimicrobial resistance genes in commensal or pathogenic strains form an indirect risk to public health, as they increase the gene pool from which pathogenic bacteria can pick up resistance traits. Food can be contaminated with antimicrobial resistant bacteria and/or antimicrobial resistance genes in several ways. A first way is the presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria on food selected by the use of antibiotics during agricultural production. A second route is the possible presence of resistance genes in bacteria that are intentionally added during the processing of food (starter cultures, probiotics, bioconserving microorganisms and bacteriophages). A last way is through cross-contamination with antimicrobial resistant bacteria during food processing. Raw food products can be consumed without having undergone prior processing or preservation and therefore hold a substantial risk for transfer of antimicrobial resistance to humans, as the eventually present resistant bacteria are not killed. As a consequence, transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes between bacteria after ingestion by humans may occur. Under minimal processing or preservation treatment conditions, sublethally damaged or stressed cells can be maintained in the food, inducing antimicrobial resistance build-up and enhancing the risk of resistance transfer. Food processes that kill bacteria in food products, decrease the risk of transmission of antimicrobial resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance Prevention and Control)
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Open AccessComment Comments on Rithidech, K.N.; et al. Lack of Genomic Instability in Bone Marrow Cells of SCID Mice Exposed Whole-Body to Low-Dose Radiation. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 1356–1377
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 2732-2734; doi:10.3390/ijerph10072732
Received: 6 May 2013 / Accepted: 19 June 2013 / Published: 2 July 2013
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Abstract
I would like to take issue with Rithidech et al., authors of the paper entitled “Lack of genomic instability in mice at low doses” [1] who claim to have shown that their results on the measurement of late occurring chromosome aberrations [...] Read more.
I would like to take issue with Rithidech et al., authors of the paper entitled “Lack of genomic instability in mice at low doses” [1] who claim to have shown that their results on the measurement of late occurring chromosome aberrations after irradiation of SCID mice with X-rays show that lower doses (0.05 Gy) do not induce genomic instability. Their earlier work at higher doses (0.1 and 1.0 Gy) on the same strain of mouse indicated that de novo chromosome aberrations were detected at 6 months post-irradiation. This was taken, almost certainly correctly, to be an indication of the presence of genomic instability: late appearing chromosome damage, as the authors note, seems to be a reliable indicator of the process. The lack of de novo chromosome aberrations at 6 months post-irradiation, however, cannot be taken as evidence of the absence of genomic instability. In drawing their conclusion of a “lack of genomic instability ….” the authors have committed two category errors. Full article
Open AccessReply Response to Baverstock, K. Comments on Rithidech, K.N.; et al. Lack of Genomic Instability in Bone Marrow Cells of SCID Mice Exposed Whole-Body to Low-Dose Radiation. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 1356–1377.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 2735-2740; doi:10.3390/ijerph10072735
Received: 14 June 2013 / Accepted: 19 June 2013 / Published: 2 July 2013
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Abstract
We thank Dr. Baverstock [1] for his interest in reading our article and his time in writing his comments for our work [2]. We, however, respectfully disagree with his statement that we made “two category errors” associated with the assessment of the [...] Read more.
We thank Dr. Baverstock [1] for his interest in reading our article and his time in writing his comments for our work [2]. We, however, respectfully disagree with his statement that we made “two category errors” associated with the assessment of the occurrence of “genomic instability” by determining the frequencies of delayed- or late-occurring chromosomal damage. Our disagreement is based upon the well-known fact that radiation-induced genomic instability (or delayed/late-occurring damage) can be manifested in many ways. These include late-occurring chromosomal damage, or mutations, or gene expression, or gene amplifications, or transformation, or microsatellite instability, or cell killing [3–9]. Such phenomena have been detected many cell generations after irradiation. We agree that genomic instability may well be the consequence of epigenetic changes. Another mechanism mentioned by Dr. Bavertock as being probably unlikely is the reversibility of damage. This potential may not be discarded off-hand, as Dr. Baverstock prefers to do. There is much reproducible evidence of adaptive protection that depending on absorbed dose precisely may reverse early damage, and damage appearing late may be due to some form of residual damage letting the cell become genetically unstable. In other words, the argument by Dr. Baverstock regarding upward or downward causation appears to be rather speculative and far from being settled. Full article
Open AccessCorrection Correction: Kim, Y.W.; Lee, S.H.; Hwang, I.G.; Yoon, K.S. Effect of Temperature on Growth of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in Flounder, Salmon Sashimi and Oyster Meat. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 12, 4662-4675
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 3014; doi:10.3390/ijerph10073014
Received: 9 July 2013 / Accepted: 16 July 2013 / Published: 18 July 2013
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Abstract The authors wish to add the following correction on their paper published in IJERPH [1], doi: 10.3390/ijerph9124662, website: http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/9/12/4662. “Vibrio paraphemolyticus” in the article title should be “Vibrio parahaemolyticus”. Full article

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