Special Issue "Tobacco Control in Vulnerable Population Groups"
A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601).
Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2013)
Prof. Dr. Luke Clancy
Tobacco Free Research Institute,The Digital Depot, Thomas Street, Dublin 8, Ireland
The 2011 high-level UN meeting in New York on non communicable diseases (NCD) highlighted the importance of tobacco use as one of the four risk factors to tackle NCDs worldwide. Tobacco control has seen some significant milestones over the past decade- the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and the World Health Organization’s MPOWER strategy. Tobacco use kills more than 5 million deaths yearly world wide - 80% of those deaths are set to occur in low-middle income nations by the turn of this century. We have seen a North-South divide in tobacco-related deaths in Europe and elsewhere. Tobacco use is inextricably linked to poverty and human development. Evidence consistently suggests that tobacco use widens health inequality both within and across populations. However, comprehensive baseline information on tobacco use and tobacco control among specific vulnerable populations is grossly inadequate. This special issue focuses on generating evidence on tobacco control in special groups such as pregnant women, lone/single parents, immigrant populations, young children, homeless and Travellers’ community, mental health patients and prisoners, carer community, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgendered & Queer (LGBTQ) groups, specific religious community, and more, with an ultimate goal of translating evidence into policy. Both original and review paper submissions are welcome.
Dr. Zubair Kabir
Prof. Dr. Luke Clancy
Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.
Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.
- secondhand smoke
The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.
Type of Paper: Article
Title: Achieving Smoke-Free Mental Health Services: Lessons from the Past Decade of Implementation Research
Authors: Sharon Lawn and Jonathan Campion
Affiliation: Flinders Human Behaviour & Health Research Unit, Margaret Tobin Centre (Room 4T306), Flinders University, USA; E-mail: Sharon.Lawn@health.sa.gov.au
Abstract: The culture of smoking by patients and staff within psychiatric systems of care has a long and entrenched history. Cigarettes have been used as currency between patients and as a patient management tool by staff. These settings have traditionally been exempt from smoke-free policy because of complex held views about the capacity of people with mental illness to tolerate such policy whilst they are acutely unwell, with stakeholders’ continuing fierce debate about rights, choice and duty of care. This culture has played a significant role in perpetuating physical, social and economic burden for people with mental illness who receive care within such systems. The past decade has seen a clear policy shift towards smoke-free mental health inpatient units in several countries. While many services have been successful in implementing this change, many issues remain to be resolved for genuine smoke-free policy in mental health settings to be realised. This literature review draws on evidence from the international published research, including national audits of smoke-free policy implementation in mental health units in Australia and England, in order to synthesise what we know works, and why it works, and what the remaining barriers are to smoke-free mental health policy.
Type of Paper: Article
Title: Disparities and Menthol Marketing: Additional Evidence in Support of Point of Sale Policies
Authors: Sarah Moreland-Russell 1,*, Jenine Harris 1, Julianne Cyr 1, Doneisha Snider 1 and Joaquin Barnoya 2
Affiliation: 1 George Warren Brown School of Social Work, Washington University in St. Louis, USA; E-mail: email@example.com
2 Division of Public Health Sciences, Department of Surgery, Washington University in St. Louis, USA (JB)
Abstract: This study examined factors associated with point of sale marketing in St. Louis, an urban city in the United States. Using spatial analysis, descriptive statistics, and multilevel modeling, we examined point of sale data and the proportion of mentholated cigarette and total cigarette advertisements from 342 individual tobacco retail stores within St. Louis census tracts characterized by the percent of black adults and children. Menthol and total tobacco product marketing was highest in areas with the highest percentages of black residents. We also found that as the proportion of black children in a census tract increased, the proportion of menthol marketing near candy also increased. The significant results of this study indicate the need for communities globally to counter this targeted marketing by taking policy action specifically through the enactment of marketing restrictions provided by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control.
Type of Paper: Article
Title: Role of an Electronic Cigarette on Smoking Reduction and Cessation in smokers with Schizophrenia: A Prospective 12-Month Pilot Study
Authors: Pasquale Caponnetto, Roberta Auditore, Cristina Russo and Riccardo Polosa
Affiliation: University of Catania; E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: Background: Smoking remains highly prevalent among patients with schizophrenia. A quantitative review of 42 studies from 20 countries reported a 62% pooled rate of smoking in patients with schizophrenia, which was significantly elevated relative to general population and psychiatric comparison groups. As a consequence, smoking related morbidity and mortality are particularly high in patients with schizophrenia.
Type of Paper: Article
Title: Smoking Prevalence in the Elderly: Patterns in Europe and Time Trends in Italy
Authors: Silvano Gallus 1, Stefania Boccia 2, Carlo la Vecchia 1,3
Affiliation: 1 Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche "Mario Negri", Milan, Italy; 2 Institute of Hygiene, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy
3 Department of Clinical, Sciences and Community Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy
Abstract: In the WHO European Region, smoking levels vary significantly, with countries tend to fall into three distinct groups (nordic-western/central-south/ex- USSR). Little is known, however, about smoking patterns in the vulnerable group of elderly, with studies more focusing on gender differences, instead of age differences. This paper addresses whether smoking patterns in the elderly have changed during the past 20 years, by dissecting the elderly into 3 age categories: 65-74/75-84/over 85 in 18 countries included in the Pricing Policies and Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) project. Additionally, the paper will provide a time-trend analysis of the smoking patterns in Italy among the elderly, based on annual national representative surveys conducted by the DOXA institute over the last decade.
Type of Paper: Review
Title: Can Tobacco Control be Transformative? The Task of Reducing Gender Inequity among Vulnerable Populations
Author: Lorraine Greaves
Affiliation: British Columbia Centre of Excellence for Women's Health, University of British Columbia, Canada; E-Mail: email@example.com
Abstract: This review paper will argue that despite the Preamble on Gender in the FCTC, there is much yet to be done in understanding how gender operates in tobacco control, and how policies and programs in tobacco control can not only address and integrate gender, but rather address gender with the aim of transforming gender relations for men and women, boys and girls. Gender transformative tobacco control is a new concept that goes beyond gender sensitive and gender inclusive efforts, and challenges tobacco control policy makers and program developers to apply gender and social theory to designing their initiatives. In so doing vulnerable groups of both sexes who may be at risk of using tobacco, or, are already using tobacco, may be addressed with a view to improving their health, economic and social status along with their tobacco use. This paper will ask is it possible, and what is needed, to set a range of goals in tobacco control in addition to tobacco reduction or cessation that will enhance the overall well being and empowerment of typically marginalized groups, and those subject to stigma and exclusion? A specific focus on gender equity will be integrated throughout the paper.
Type of Paper: Article
Title: Experts’ Opinions about the Relative Effectiveness of Tobacco Control Strategies for the General Population Versus Disadvantaged Groups: What Do We Choose in the Absence of Evidence?
Authors: Christine Louise Paul 1,3,*, Heidi Turon 1,3, Billie Bonevski 1,3, Jamie Bryant 1,3, Patrick McElduff 2,3
Affiliations: 1 Priority Research Centre for Health Behaviour (PRCHB), University of Newcastle, Australia
2 Clinical Research Design, IT and Statistical Support (CReDITSS) Unit, University of Newcastle, Australia
3 Hunter Medical Research Institute (HMRI), Newcastle, Australia.
Abstract: Background: There is a clear disparity in smoking rates according to social disadvantage. In the absence of sufficiently robust data regarding effective strategies for reducing smoking prevalence in disadvantaged populations, understanding the views of tobacco control experts can assist with funding decisions and research agendas.
Methods: A web-based cross-sectional survey was conducted with 192 respondents (response rate 65%) sampled from the Australian and New Zealand Tobacco Control Contacts list and a literature search. Respondents were asked to indicate whether a number of tobacco control strategies were perceived to be effective for each of: the general population; Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people; those with a low income; and people with a mental illness.
Results: A high proportion of respondents indicated that mass media and increased tobacco taxation (84% and 89% respectively) were effective for the general population. Significantly lower proportions reported these two strategies were effective for sub-populations, particularly Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (58% and 63% respectively, p’s < .0001). The only strategy preferred for disadvantaged sub- populations was subsidised medications. Tailored quit programs and culturally relevant programs were nominated as additional effective strategies.
Conclusions: Views about subsidised medications in particular, suggest the need for robust cost-effectiveness data relevant to disadvantaged groups to avoid wastage of scarce tobacco control resources. Strategies perceived to be effective for disadvantaged populations such as tailored or culturally relevant programs require rigorous evaluation so that potential adoption of these approaches is evidence-based.
Keywords: smoking cessation; vulnerable populations; expert opinion; socioeconomic status; indigenous health; mental illness; low income
Type of Paper: Article
Title: HIV-Infected Adolescent, Young Adult and Pregnant Smokers: Potential Targets for More Effective Tobacco Control Programs
Authors: Gerome Escota and Nur Onen
Affiliation: Division of Infectious Diseases, Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, USA; E-Mails: GESCOTA@DOM.wustl.edu (G.E.), NONEN@DOM.wustl.edu (N.O.)
Abstract: Tobacco use is inextricably linked to a number of health risks both in the general and HIV-infected population. There is, however, a dearth of research on effective tobacco control programs among people living with HIV, and especially among adolescent and young adults, and pregnant women, groups with heightened/increased vulnerability secondary to tobacco use. Adolescents and young adults constitute a growing population of persons living with HIV infection. Early and continued tobacco use in this population living with a disease characterized by early-onset multimorbidity and chronic inflammation is of concern. Additionally, there is an increased acuity for tobacco control among HIV-infected pregnant women to reduce pregnancy morbidity and improve fetal outcome. This review will provide an important summary of current knowledge of tobacco use among HIV-infected adolescents, young adults and pregnant women. The effects of tobacco use in these specific populations will be presented and the current state of tobacco control within these populations, assessed.