Next Article in Journal
Next Article in Special Issue
Previous Article in Journal
Previous Article in Special Issue
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 2995-3013; doi:10.3390/ijerph10072995
Article

The Impact of Health Insurance Programs on Out-of-Pocket Expenditures in Indonesia: An Increase or a Decrease?

1,2,* , 1
, 1
 and 1
Received: 30 April 2013; in revised form: 4 July 2013 / Accepted: 8 July 2013 / Published: 18 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Economics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [667 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]   |   Browse Figures
Abstract: We used panel data from the Indonesian Family Life Survey to investigate the impact of health insurance programs on reducing out-of-pocket expenditures. We employed three linear panel data models, two of which accounted for endogeneity: pooled ordinary least squares (OLS), pooled two-stage least squares (2SLS) for instrumental variable (IV), and fixed effects (FE). The study revealed that two health insurance programs had a significantly negative impact on out-of-pocket expenditures by using IV estimates. In the IV model, Askeskin decreased out-of-pocket expenditures by 34% and Askes by 55% compared with non-Askeskin and non-Askes, respectively, while Jamsostek was found to bear a nonsignificant effect on out-of-pocket expenditures. In the FE model, only Askeskin had a significant negative effect with an 11% reduction on out-of-pocket expenditures. This study showed that two large existing health insurance programs in Indonesia, Askeskin and Askes, effectively reduced household out-of-pocket expenditures. The ability of programs to offer financial protection by reducing out-of-pocket expenditures is likely to be a direct function of their benefits package and co-payment policies.
Keywords: health insurance; out-of-pocket expenditures; panel data analysis health insurance; out-of-pocket expenditures; panel data analysis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Aji, B.; De Allegri, M.; Souares, A.; Sauerborn, R. The Impact of Health Insurance Programs on Out-of-Pocket Expenditures in Indonesia: An Increase or a Decrease? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 2995-3013.

AMA Style

Aji B, De Allegri M, Souares A, Sauerborn R. The Impact of Health Insurance Programs on Out-of-Pocket Expenditures in Indonesia: An Increase or a Decrease? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(7):2995-3013.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Aji, Budi; De Allegri, Manuela; Souares, Aurelia; Sauerborn, Rainer. 2013. "The Impact of Health Insurance Programs on Out-of-Pocket Expenditures in Indonesia: An Increase or a Decrease?" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 7: 2995-3013.



Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert