Next Article in Journal
Evaluation of Ecotoxicological Risks Related to the Discharge of Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs) in a Periurban River
Next Article in Special Issue
Evaluation of Models Describing the Growth of Nalidixic Acid-Resistant E. coli O157:H7 in Blanched Spinach and Iceberg Lettuce as a Function of Temperature
Previous Article in Journal
Perspectives to Performance of Environment and Health Assessments and Models—From Outputs to Outcomes?
Previous Article in Special Issue
Outbreak of Ampicillin/Piperacillin-Resistant Klebsiella Pneumoniae in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU): Investigation and Control Measures
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(7), 2643-2669; doi:10.3390/ijerph10072643

Antimicrobial Resistance in the Food Chain: A Review

1,* , 2
, 2,3
, 3
, 4,5
, 6
, 7
, 1
, 4,8
, 6
, 7,8
, 7,8
, 3
, 5,8
 and 3,8
Received: 24 April 2013 / Revised: 14 June 2013 / Accepted: 17 June 2013 / Published: 28 June 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance Prevention and Control)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [354 KB, updated 19 June 2014; original version uploaded 19 June 2014]   |   Browse Figure
Abstract: Antimicrobial resistant zoonotic pathogens present on food constitute a direct risk to public health. Antimicrobial resistance genes in commensal or pathogenic strains form an indirect risk to public health, as they increase the gene pool from which pathogenic bacteria can pick up resistance traits. Food can be contaminated with antimicrobial resistant bacteria and/or antimicrobial resistance genes in several ways. A first way is the presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria on food selected by the use of antibiotics during agricultural production. A second route is the possible presence of resistance genes in bacteria that are intentionally added during the processing of food (starter cultures, probiotics, bioconserving microorganisms and bacteriophages). A last way is through cross-contamination with antimicrobial resistant bacteria during food processing. Raw food products can be consumed without having undergone prior processing or preservation and therefore hold a substantial risk for transfer of antimicrobial resistance to humans, as the eventually present resistant bacteria are not killed. As a consequence, transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes between bacteria after ingestion by humans may occur. Under minimal processing or preservation treatment conditions, sublethally damaged or stressed cells can be maintained in the food, inducing antimicrobial resistance build-up and enhancing the risk of resistance transfer. Food processes that kill bacteria in food products, decrease the risk of transmission of antimicrobial resistance.
Keywords: antimicrobial resistant bacteria; antimicrobial resistance genes; horizontal gene transfer; food safety antimicrobial resistant bacteria; antimicrobial resistance genes; horizontal gene transfer; food safety
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |

MDPI and ACS Style

Verraes, C.; Van Boxstael, S.; Van Meervenne, E.; Van Coillie, E.; Butaye, P.; Catry, B.; de Schaetzen, M.-A.; Van Huffel, X.; Imberechts, H.; Dierick, K.; Daube, G.; Saegerman, C.; De Block, J.; Dewulf, J.; Herman, L. Antimicrobial Resistance in the Food Chain: A Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 2643-2669.

AMA Style

Verraes C, Van Boxstael S, Van Meervenne E, Van Coillie E, Butaye P, Catry B, de Schaetzen M-A, Van Huffel X, Imberechts H, Dierick K, Daube G, Saegerman C, De Block J, Dewulf J, Herman L. Antimicrobial Resistance in the Food Chain: A Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(7):2643-2669.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Verraes, Claire; Van Boxstael, Sigrid; Van Meervenne, Eva; Van Coillie, Els; Butaye, Patrick; Catry, Boudewijn; de Schaetzen, Marie-Athénaïs; Van Huffel, Xavier; Imberechts, Hein; Dierick, Katelijne; Daube, Georges; Saegerman, Claude; De Block, Jan; Dewulf, Jeroen; Herman, Lieve. 2013. "Antimicrobial Resistance in the Food Chain: A Review." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 7: 2643-2669.

Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert