The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these
manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers
submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.
Type of Paper: Review
Title: Food Safety Risks for Populations of Different Races, Ethnicities and Income Levels at the Retail, Food Service and Consumer Levels: A Review of the Literature
Author: Jennifer J. Quinlan
Affiliation: Department of Nutrition Sciences, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19102, USA; E-Mail: email@example.com
Abstract: While foodborne illness is not traditionally tracked by race, ethnicity or income, a number of recent analyses of reported illnesses have found increased rates of foodborne illness among these populations. It is unclear why this health disparity exists. One possibility is less safe food handling practices among these populations. There have been a number of studies which have examined food handling practices among minority consumers through a variety of methods. Some studies have used focus groups and surveys to obtain reported food handling behaviors. Others have observed food handling practices. While results of these studies are somewhat mixed, in general the data suggest that there may be a need to target safe food handling messages to these vulnerable populations. Another possibility for why minority and/or low income populations might experience increased rates of foodborne illness may be that they are receiving food that is less safe at the level of the retail food outlet or food service facility. Low socioeconomic (SES) and minority populations are less likely to have access to supermarkets but more likely to have access to small grocery stores, convenience stores and fast food/take out restaurants. This phenomenon, also known as a “food desert” is believed to contribute to poor quality diets in these populations because of lack of access to fresh, healthy food choices. It is not clear however, whether the “food desert” phenomenon also contributes to less safe food available to these populations. A limited body of research has begun to examine the quality and safety of food available at small markets in the food desert environment and preliminary studies have found that small corner markets face unique challenges regarding infrastructure and refrigeration, etc. which may affect the quality and potential safety of perishable foods which they try to carry and sell. Finally, there is a growing body of research examining the safety of food from ethnic foodservice facilities through both foodborne illness outbreak data as well as employee food handling practices. These studies generally indicate that some ethnic foodservice facilities may present increased risks for foodborne illness. This review of the literature will examine all aspects of foodborne illness among, and food safety risks for, minority and low socioeconomic populations.
Type of Paper: Article
Title: Predictive model for the growth kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes in raw pork as a function of temperature
Author: Hyun-Dong Paik
Affiliation: Konkuk University, Seoul, Korea; E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: This study was performed to develop a growth predictive modeling of L. monocytogenes to ensure the safety of pork. Pork samples were collected from major retail outlets and the effect of temperature on the growth of food-borne pathogens was examined. The samples were inoculated with a cocktail of 2 L. monocytogenes strains and stored under different temperatures (5, 15, and 25°C). Growth data were evaluated using the MicroFit program. To develop primary models, we applied the observed data to the Baranyi and Gompertz model equations. We observed that the growth rate was dependent on temperature, and therefore, temperature was applied as factor in a secondary model for growth rate. During storage, the lag times (LT) for 5, 15, and 25°C were 173, 4.35, and 1.12 h and the growth rates were 0.05, 0.13, and 0.33 Log CFU/g/h, respectively. The mathematically predicted growth rate parameters were evaluated using the bias factor (Bf), accuracy factor (Af), and root mean square error (RMSE). The Baranyi model, which showed an R2 of 0.979 and RMSE of 0.192 was more suitable than the Gompertz model, which showed an R2 of 0.867 and RMSE of 0.490. At each temperature, the observed Bf values were 1.000, 1.053, and 1.043 and the Af values were 1.001, 1.061, and 1.059 by the Baranyi model, respectively. These values indicated that the developed models were dependable for expressing the growth of microorganisms on pork. We have developed a predictive modeling for growth of L. monocytogenes on pork, which could be applied to ensure the safety of meat and to establish standards to avoid microbial contamination of meat.
Type of Paper: Article
Title: Can Probiotics and Prebiotics Improve the Environmental Microbiome and Alter the Resistome of Commercial Poultry Production?
Authors: Adriana Pedroso, Andrea P. de Oliveira, Anne Hurley-Bacon, Andrea Sinclear, Tiffany Kwan, Jingrang Lu, Gloria Avellaneda, Charles L. Hofacre , Steve Collett, John J. Maurer, and Margie D. Lee
Affiliation: Poultry Diagnostic and Research Center, Center for Food Safety, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30223, USA; E-Mail: email@example.com
Abstract: Food animal production systems have become more consolidated and integrated, producing large, concentrated animal populations and their unwanted waste by-product. Contamination of produce may be due to increasing use of manure and litter as a more “natural” or affordable source of fertilizer. In addition, human and animal manure has been identified as a significant source of antibiotic resistance genes thereby serving as a disseminator of resistance to soil and waterways. Therefore, identifying methods to remediate human and animal waste is critical in developing strategies to improve food safety and minimized antimicrobial resistance. In this study, high throughput sequencing paired with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to reveal the microbial community composition of poultry litter from birds that were administered streptogramin growth-promoting antibiotics, probiotics, or prebiotics. The prevalence of streptogramin resistance genes and class 1 integrons was determined from PCR screens of community DNA. There were no statistically significant changes (p = 0.29) in microbial community structure demonstrated by Shannon-Weaver diversity indices as a response to virginiamycin usage. However, there were inter-farm differences in the presence or absence of major bacterial phylotypes identified by T-RFLP. Streptogramin resistance genes vatA, vatB, and vatE, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance genes ermA and ermB, and tetracycline resistance gene tetM were present in the microbial community of poultry litter. There was inter-farm variability in the distribution of vatA and vatE among litter microbiota, however, there were no statistically significant differences in their distribution with regards to streptogramin usage. Diversity was higher in the litter when probiotics were administered but as the litter aged, diversity decreased. Differences in the abundance of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were observed and abundance of pathogenic Clostridia species increased in aging litter despite the treatment. However, abundance of a poultry pathogen, Enterococcus cecorum decreased with time and treatment. These findings suggest that administering alternatives to antibiotics can change the litter bacterial composition and reduce the prevalence of some pathogenic bacteria that are important to human and veterinary medicine.
Type of Paper: Review
Title: Review of Inactivation of Pathogenic Bacteria in Food by Plant Essential Oils and Oil Compounds
Author: Mendel Friedman and Carol Levin
Affiliation: United States Department of Agriculture, Albany, CA 94710, USA; E-Mail: Mendel.Friedman@ARS.USDA.GOV
Abstract: Interest in the use of plant essential oils (EOs) as natural and safe antimicrobial agents in foods has increased in recent years. To facilitate practical use, a need exists to integrate published studies on the factors that govern antimicrobial effects of EOs in laboratory media and in different food categories. Considerations that are addressed include EO activities against target and non-target bacteria, relative efficacy, interactions with other food components which can enhance or interfere with bactericidal activity, effects of storage and packaging and food processing, delivery systems, concurrent beneficial or non-beneficial changes in the food products, and sensory aspects. To help meet this need, this review surveys and interprets the extensive literature on antimicrobial effects of essential oils/oil components against foodborne pathogenic bacteria (Campylobacter, E. coli, Listeria, Salmonella) in several food categories. These include produce (fruits, vegetables, and leafy greens), liquid foods (fruit and vegetable juices, milks, egg-milk beverages, sauces, soft drinks, soups), cheeses, prepared foods (bread, chocolate), ground and unground meat and poultry, and seafood. Further research needs in each of these areas are suggested. The described findings are a resource for further progress to improve microbial food safety, food quality, and animal and human health.
Type of Paper: Article
Title: Antimicrobial Effect of a Neem Cake Extract on Bacteria Affecting Meat quality
Author: Marcello Nicoletti
Affiliation: Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy; E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: The increasing incidence of foodborne diseases, coupled with the resultant social and economic implications, causes a constant striving to produce safer feed and food as to develop new natural antimicrobial agents, in alternative to, or together with, the antibiotics actually in use. This work reports the antimicrobial activity of an ethylacetate extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) cake (NCE) against bacterial populations affecting quality of retail meat, namely Campylobacter jejuni, Carnobacterium spp., Lactobacillus curvatus, Lact. sakei and Leuconostoc sp. The antimicrobial activity was assayed on bacteria grown on appropriate solid and liquid media, as well on vacuum packed minced meat experimentally inoculated with the tested bacteria. NCE (100 µg) tested by agar disc diffusion method inhibited growth of all tested microorganisms in different amounts. The NCE growth inhibition zone (IZ) ranged 11.33÷22.67 mm while the ciprofloxacin (10 µg) IZ ranged 23.41÷32.67 mm. There was not significant difference (P < 0.05) between the antimicrobial activity of NCE and ciprofloxacin vs C. jejuni and Leuconostoc spp. The NCE antibacterial activity was determined also at lower concentrations (1:10 ÷ 1:100,000) in micro-assays using sterile microplates of polystyrene as percent of bacterial growth reduction estimated against the control treatment without the antibiotic. The growth of all tested bacteria was inhibited. The percent growth reduction ranged 61±2.08÷92±3.21. The higher bacterial growth reduction was obtained at 10 µg concentration of NCE (89± 0.61÷ 92± 3.21). In addition, species-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and multiplex PCR with the DNA dye propidium monoazide were used to detect viable bacterial cells from meat samples experimentally contaminated. The present study suggests that NCE displays antibacterial properties potentially useful to control foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms associated to retail fresh meat.
Type of Paper: Article
Title: Scoping the Impact of Demographic Changes on the Future Burden of Foodborne Disease in The Netherlands, 2020-2060
Authors: M. Bouwknegt1, W. Van Pelt1 and A.H. Havelaar1,2
Affiliations: 1 Centre for Infectious Disease Control Netherlands, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, the Netherlands 2 Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands E-Mail: email@example.com
Abstract: A demographic shift towards a larger proportion of elderly in the Dutch population in the coming decades might change foodborne disease incidence and mortality as compared to the current situation. Drivers for this change may include various factors, such as social clustering, changing health care and health care policies or differences in age-specific susceptibility to pathogens. In the current study we focused on the latter by combining age-specific demographic forecasts for 10-year periods between 2020 and 2060 with age-specific infection probabilities for Campylobacter spp., non-typhoidal Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, hepatitis A virus and Toxoplasma gondii. Disease incidence rates for four pathogens were estimated to change marginally, because increases and decreases in specific age groups cancelled out over all ages. For L. monocytogenes, incidence estimates doubled. Estimated mortality rates increased two-fold for Salmonella, Campylobacter and Listeria. This straightforward scoping effort does not suggest major changes based on demographic changes solely. Other factors as mentioned before, however, have not been included.