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Determinants of Childhood Immunization Uptake among Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Migrants in East China
Institute of Immunization and Prevention, Zhejiang Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou 310051, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 March 2013; in revised form: 27 May 2013 / Accepted: 28 June 2013 / Published: 9 July 2013
Abstract: Objective: To determine the coverage of childhood immunization appropriate for age among socio-economically disadvantaged recent migrants living in East China and to identify the determinants of full immunization uptake among these migrant children. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey of 1,426 migrant mothers with a child aged ≤24 months, who were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Various vaccines, migration history and some other social-demographic and income details were collected. Single-level logistic regression analyses were applied to identify the determinants of full immunization status. Results: Immunization coverage rates are lower among migrants and even lower among recent migrants. The likelihood of a child receiving full immunization rise with parents’ educational level and the frequency of mother’s utilization of health care. Higher household income also significantly increase the likelihood of full immunization, as dose post-natal visits by a health worker. Conclusions: Recent migrant status favours low immunization uptake, particularly in the vulnerability context of alienation and livelihood insecurity. Services must be delivered with a focus on recent migrants. Investments are needed in education, socio-economic development and secure livelihoods to improve and sustain equitable health care services.
Keywords: immunization; migrants; child health; determinants
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MDPI and ACS Style
Hu, Y.; Li, Q.; Chen, E.; Chen, Y.; Qi, X. Determinants of Childhood Immunization Uptake among Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Migrants in East China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 2845-2856.
Hu Y, Li Q, Chen E, Chen Y, Qi X. Determinants of Childhood Immunization Uptake among Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Migrants in East China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(7):2845-2856.
Hu, Yu; Li, Qian; Chen, Enfu; Chen, Yaping; Qi, Xiaohua. 2013. "Determinants of Childhood Immunization Uptake among Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Migrants in East China." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 7: 2845-2856.