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Sensors, Volume 9, Issue 3 (March 2009), Pages 1295-2221

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Open AccessArticle Determination of Lactoferrin and Immunoglobulin G in Animal Milks by New Immunosensors
Sensors 2009, 9(3), 2202-2221; https://doi.org/10.3390/s90302202
Received: 29 December 2008 / Revised: 20 March 2009 / Accepted: 24 March 2009 / Published: 26 March 2009
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (289 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two different immunosensors, recently developed for the determination of antibacterial proteins (lactoferrin and immunoglobulin G) in buffalo milk and in other commercial animal milks samples, were used in the present study. The aim was to propose these immunosensor methods for routine control of
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Two different immunosensors, recently developed for the determination of antibacterial proteins (lactoferrin and immunoglobulin G) in buffalo milk and in other commercial animal milks samples, were used in the present study. The aim was to propose these immunosensor methods for routine control of important diet products, such as cow and goat milks, and in particular buffalo milk. To this end we employed two different kinds of immunosensors: one for the analysis of immunoglobulin G (IgG), the other was a new amperometric immunosensor for lactoferrin analysis. Lactoferrin and IgG immunosensors were also used for the determination of lactoferrin and immunoglobulin G in buffalo milk on different days of lactation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Italy)
Open AccessArticle Measurement and Evaluation of Finger Tapping Movements Using Log-linearized Gaussian Mixture Networks
Sensors 2009, 9(3), 2187-2201; https://doi.org/10.3390/s90302187
Received: 6 November 2008 / Revised: 18 March 2009 / Accepted: 18 March 2009 / Published: 26 March 2009
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (1172 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes a method to quantitatively measure and evaluate finger tapping movements for the assessment of motor function using log-linearized Gaussian mixture networks (LLGMNs). First, finger tapping movements are measured using magnetic sensors, and eleven indices are computed for evaluation. After standardizing
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This paper proposes a method to quantitatively measure and evaluate finger tapping movements for the assessment of motor function using log-linearized Gaussian mixture networks (LLGMNs). First, finger tapping movements are measured using magnetic sensors, and eleven indices are computed for evaluation. After standardizing these indices based on those of normal subjects, they are input to LLGMNs to assess motor function. Then, motor ability is probabilistically discriminated to determine whether it is normal or not using a classifier combined with the output of multiple LLGMNs based on bagging and entropy. This paper reports on evaluation and discrimination experiments performed on finger tapping movements in 33 Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients and 32 normal elderly subjects. The results showed that the patients could be classified correctly in terms of their impairment status with a high degree of accuracy (average rate: 93:1 § 3:69%) using 12 LLGMNs, which was about 5% higher than the results obtained using a single LLGMN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Japan)
Open AccessArticle Development of a Novel, Ultra-rapid Biosensor for the Qualitative Detection of Hepatitis B Virus-associated Antigens and Anti-HBV, Based on “Membrane-engineered” Fibroblast Cells with Virus-Specific Antibodies and Antigens
Sensors 2009, 9(3), 2176-2186; https://doi.org/10.3390/s90302176
Received: 3 February 2009 / Revised: 16 March 2009 / Accepted: 25 March 2009 / Published: 25 March 2009
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (180 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel miniature cell biosensor detection system for the detection of Hepatis B virus (HBV)-associated antigens and anti-HBV is described. The biosensor is based on “membrane-engineered” Vero fibroblast cells immobilized in an alginate matrix. The membrane-engineering process involved the electroinsertion of anti-HBV specific
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A novel miniature cell biosensor detection system for the detection of Hepatis B virus (HBV)-associated antigens and anti-HBV is described. The biosensor is based on “membrane-engineered” Vero fibroblast cells immobilized in an alginate matrix. The membrane-engineering process involved the electroinsertion of anti-HBV specific antibodies (anti-HBs, anti-HBe) or antigens (HBsAg) in the membranes of the Vero cells. The attachment of a homologous antigen to the electroinserted antibody (or, respectively, of the antibody to the electroinserted antigen) triggered specific changes to the cell membrane potential that were measured by appropriate microelectrodes, according to the principle of the Bioelectric Recognition Assay (BERA). The sensor was used for screening 133 clinical blood serum samples according to a double-blind protocol. Considerably higher sensor responses were observed against HBV-positive samples, compared with responses against negative samples or samples positive for heterologous hepatitis viruses such as Hepatitis C (HCV) virus. Detection of anti-HBs antibodies was made possible by using a biosensor based on immobilized Vero cells bearing the respective antigen (HBsAg). The observed response was rapid (45 sec) and quite reproducible. Fluorescence microscopy observations showed that attachment of HBV particles to cells membrane-engineered with anti-HBs was associated with a decrease of [Ca2+]cyt. The perspectives for using the novel biosensor as a qualitative, rapid screening, high throughput assay for HBV antigens and anti-HBs in clinical samples is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogen Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Electromechanical Characteristic Analysis of Passive Matrix Addressing for Grating Light Modulator
Sensors 2009, 9(3), 2162-2175; https://doi.org/10.3390/s90302162
Received: 23 January 2009 / Revised: 5 March 2009 / Accepted: 19 March 2009 / Published: 24 March 2009
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1206 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
AGrating Light Modulator (GLM) based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is applied in projection display. The operating principle of the GLM is introduced in this paper. The electromechanical characteristic of the passive matrix addressing GLM is studied. It was found that if the spring
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AGrating Light Modulator (GLM) based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is applied in projection display. The operating principle of the GLM is introduced in this paper. The electromechanical characteristic of the passive matrix addressing GLM is studied. It was found that if the spring constant is larger, both the response frequency and the driving voltage are larger. Theoretical analysis shows that the operating voltage and the pull-in voltage of the GLM are 8.16 and 8.74 V, respectively. When an all-selected pixel in a m×n array is actuated by a voltage V0, the voltages of the half-selected pixel in row and column are V0(m-1)/(m+n-1) and V0(n-1)/(m+n-1), respectively, and the voltage of the non-selected pixel is V0/(m+n-1). Finally, the experimental results indicate that the operating voltage and the pull-in voltage are 7.8 and 8.5V respectively, and the response frequency of the GLM is about 7 kHz. The crosstalk in a 16×16 GLM array is validated by the experiment. These studies provide a theoretical basis for improving the GLM driver. Full article
Open AccessArticle Automatic Exudate Detection from Non-dilated Diabetic Retinopathy Retinal Images Using Fuzzy C-means Clustering
Sensors 2009, 9(3), 2148-2161; https://doi.org/10.3390/s90302148
Received: 29 January 2009 / Revised: 19 March 2009 / Accepted: 20 March 2009 / Published: 24 March 2009
Cited by 108 | PDF Full-text (286 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Exudates are the primary sign of Diabetic Retinopathy. Early detection can potentially reduce the risk of blindness. An automatic method to detect exudates from low-contrast digital images of retinopathy patients with non-dilated pupils using a Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) clustering is proposed. Contrast enhancement
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Exudates are the primary sign of Diabetic Retinopathy. Early detection can potentially reduce the risk of blindness. An automatic method to detect exudates from low-contrast digital images of retinopathy patients with non-dilated pupils using a Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) clustering is proposed. Contrast enhancement preprocessing is applied before four features, namely intensity, standard deviation on intensity, hue and a number of edge pixels, are extracted to supply as input parameters to coarse segmentation using FCM clustering method. The first result is then fine-tuned with morphological techniques. The detection results are validated by comparing with expert ophthalmologists’ hand-drawn ground-truths. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), positive likelihood ratio (PLR) and accuracy are used to evaluate overall performance. It is found that the proposed method detects exudates successfully with sensitivity, specificity, PPV, PLR and accuracy of 87.28%, 99.24%, 42.77%, 224.26 and 99.11%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle EROD and MROD as Markers of Cytochrome P450 1A Activities in Hepatic Microsomes from Entire and Castrated Male Pigs
Sensors 2009, 9(3), 2134-2147; https://doi.org/10.3390/s90302134
Received: 21 February 2009 / Revised: 18 March 2009 / Accepted: 19 March 2009 / Published: 23 March 2009
Cited by 38 | PDF Full-text (166 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the present study, we characterized the kinetic parameters of 7-ethoxy-resorufin O-deethylation (EROD) and 7-methoxyresorufin O-demethylation (MROD) in hepatic microsomes from entire and castrated male pigs. Validation parameters of an HPLC-based method to analyse EROD and MROD activities are also described.
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In the present study, we characterized the kinetic parameters of 7-ethoxy-resorufin O-deethylation (EROD) and 7-methoxyresorufin O-demethylation (MROD) in hepatic microsomes from entire and castrated male pigs. Validation parameters of an HPLC-based method to analyse EROD and MROD activities are also described. Eadie-Hofstee plot analysis demonstrated a biphasic kinetic of EROD, indicating that at least two forms of cytochrome P450 are involved in this reaction. MROD followed monophasic kinetic, suggesting that a single enzyme, or enzymes with similar affinities, is responsible for the reaction. Inhibitory effects of α-naphthoflavone (ANF), ellipticine and furafylline were studied using microsomes from entire and castrated male pigs. ANF is a known inhibitor of both cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1A2 (CYP1A1 and CYP1A2); the presence of ANF in the incubations resulted in the inhibition of both EROD and MROD activities in porcine liver microsomes. EROD activities in porcine liver microsomes were also inhibited by selective CYP1A1 inhibitor ellipticine, but not by CYP1A2 inhibitor furafylline. MROD activities were strongly inhibited by ellipticine and to a much lesser extent by furafylline. Further studies are needed to evaluate substrate specificities of porcine CYP1A1 and CYP1A2. Full article
Open AccessArticle Metabolic Discrimination of Select List Agents by Monitoring Cellular Responses in a Multianalyte Microphysiometer
Sensors 2009, 9(3), 2117-2133; https://doi.org/10.3390/s90302117
Received: 7 January 2009 / Revised: 15 March 2009 / Accepted: 17 March 2009 / Published: 23 March 2009
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (248 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Harnessing the potential of cells as complex biosensors promises the potential to create sensitive and selective detectors for discrimination of biodefense agents. Here we present toxin detection and suggest discrimination using cells in a multianalyte microphysiometer (MMP) that is capable of simultaneously measuring
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Harnessing the potential of cells as complex biosensors promises the potential to create sensitive and selective detectors for discrimination of biodefense agents. Here we present toxin detection and suggest discrimination using cells in a multianalyte microphysiometer (MMP) that is capable of simultaneously measuring flux changes in four extracellular analytes (acidification rate, glucose uptake, oxygen uptake, and lactate production) in real-time. Differential short-term cellular responses were observed between botulinum neurotoxin A and ricin toxin with neuroblastoma cells, alamethicin and anthrax protective antigen with RAW macrophages, and cholera toxin, muscarine, 2,4-dinitro-phenol, and NaF with CHO cells. These results and the post exposure dynamics and metabolic recovery observed in each case suggest the usefulness of cell-based detectors to discriminate between specific analytes and classes of compounds in a complex matrix, and furthermore to make metabolic inferences on the cellular effects of the agents. This may be particularly valuable for classifying unknown toxins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxin Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Availability and End-to-end Reliability in Low Duty Cycle MultihopWireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2009, 9(3), 2088-2116; https://doi.org/10.3390/s90302088
Received: 17 November 2008 / Revised: 6 March 2009 / Accepted: 16 March 2009 / Published: 20 March 2009
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (367 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A wireless sensor network (WSN) is an ad-hoc technology that may even consist of thousands of nodes, which necessitates autonomic, self-organizing and multihop operations. A typical WSN node is battery powered, which makes the network lifetime the primary concern. The highest energy efficiency
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A wireless sensor network (WSN) is an ad-hoc technology that may even consist of thousands of nodes, which necessitates autonomic, self-organizing and multihop operations. A typical WSN node is battery powered, which makes the network lifetime the primary concern. The highest energy efficiency is achieved with low duty cycle operation, however, this alone is not enough. WSNs are deployed for different uses, each requiring acceptable Quality of Service (QoS). Due to the unique characteristics of WSNs, such as dynamic wireless multihop routing and resource constraints, the legacy QoS metrics are not feasible as such. We give a new definition to measure and implement QoS in low duty cycle WSNs, namely availability and reliability. Then, we analyze the effect of duty cycling for reaching the availability and reliability. The results are obtained by simulations with ZigBee and proprietary TUTWSN protocols. Based on the results, we also propose a data forwarding algorithm suitable for resource constrained WSNs that guarantees end-to-end reliability while adding a small overhead that is relative to the packet error rate (PER). The forwarding algorithm guarantees reliability up to 30% PER. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Sensor Technologies and Applications)
Open AccessArticle Optimization of a PVC Membrane for Reference Field Effect Transistors
Sensors 2009, 9(3), 2076-2087; https://doi.org/10.3390/s90302076
Received: 20 February 2009 / Revised: 9 March 2009 / Accepted: 12 March 2009 / Published: 19 March 2009
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (190 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For the miniaturization of ISFET sensing systems,the concept of a REFET with low ion sensitivity is proposed to replace the conventional reference electrodes through the arrangement of a quasi reference electrode and a differential readout circuit. In this study, an ion-unblocking membrane was
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For the miniaturization of ISFET sensing systems,the concept of a REFET with low ion sensitivity is proposed to replace the conventional reference electrodes through the arrangement of a quasi reference electrode and a differential readout circuit. In this study, an ion-unblocking membrane was used as the top layer of a REFET. To optimize the REFET performance, the influences of the silylating process, different plasticizers, and the composition of the PVC cocktails were investigated. A low sensitivity (10.4 ± 2.2 mV/pH) and high linearity (99.7 ± 0.3 %) in the range from pH 2.2 to pH 11.6 was obtained for the REFET with a 60˚wt.% DNP/(DNP + PVC) membrane. To evaluate the long term stability, the drift coefficient was estimated, and for the best REFET, it was –0.74 mV/h. Two criteria for assessing the lifetime of REFETs were used, namely the increase in pH sensitivity to a value higher than 15 mV/pH and the degradation of linearity below 99 %. For the best REFET, it was approximately 15 days. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle Fabrication and Characterization of a Tunable In-plane Resonator with Low Driving Voltage
Sensors 2009, 9(3), 2062-2075; https://doi.org/10.3390/s90302062
Received: 19 February 2009 / Revised: 14 March 2009 / Accepted: 18 March 2009 / Published: 18 March 2009
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (647 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study presents the fabrication and characterization of a micromechanical tunable in-plane resonator. The resonator is manufactured using the commercial 0.35 µm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The resonator is made of aluminum, and the sacrificial layer is silicon dioxide. The post-process
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This study presents the fabrication and characterization of a micromechanical tunable in-plane resonator. The resonator is manufactured using the commercial 0.35 µm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The resonator is made of aluminum, and the sacrificial layer is silicon dioxide. The post-process involves only one maskless etching step using an etchant to remove the sacrificial layer. The resonator includes three parts: a driving part to provide a driving force, a sensing part that is used to detect a change in capacitance when the resonator is vibrating, and a tuning part that changes the resonant frequency of the resonator. The main advantages of the tunable resonator are a low driving voltage and compatibility with the CMOS process. The resonant frequency of the resonator can be changed upon applying a dc voltage to the tuning part. To reduce the driving voltage, the driving part is designed as comb-finger rows. Experimental results show that the resonator has a resonant frequency of about 183 kHz and a driving voltage of 10 V; the resonant frequency increases 14 kHz when a tuning voltage of 30 V is applied. The resonator has a maximum frequency–tuning ratio of 7.6%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering - 2009)
Open AccessArticle Spatial Forecast of Landslides in Three Gorges Based On Spatial Data Mining
Sensors 2009, 9(3), 2035-2061; https://doi.org/10.3390/s90302035
Received: 17 December 2008 / Revised: 25 February 2009 / Accepted: 26 February 2009 / Published: 18 March 2009
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (825 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Three Gorges is a region with a very high landslide distribution density and a concentrated population. In Three Gorges there are often landslide disasters, and the potential risk of landslides is tremendous. In this paper, focusing on Three Gorges, which has a
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The Three Gorges is a region with a very high landslide distribution density and a concentrated population. In Three Gorges there are often landslide disasters, and the potential risk of landslides is tremendous. In this paper, focusing on Three Gorges, which has a complicated landform, spatial forecasting of landslides is studied by establishing 20 forecast factors (spectra, texture, vegetation coverage, water level of reservoir, slope structure, engineering rock group, elevation, slope, aspect, etc). China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (Cbers) images were adopted based on C4.5 decision tree to mine spatial forecast landslide criteria in Guojiaba Town (Zhigui County) in Three Gorges and based on this knowledge, perform intelligent spatial landslide forecasts for Guojiaba Town. All landslides lie in the dangerous and unstable regions, so the forecast result is good. The method proposed in the paper is compared with seven other methods: IsoData, K-Means, Mahalanobis Distance, Maximum Likelihood, Minimum Distance, Parallelepiped and Information Content Model. The experimental results show that the method proposed in this paper has a high forecast precision, noticeably higher than that of the other seven methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Sensor Technologies and Applications)
Open AccessArticle GPS Velocity and Strain Rate Fields in Southwest Anatolia from Repeated GPS Measurements
Sensors 2009, 9(3), 2017-2034; https://doi.org/10.3390/s90302017
Received: 17 December 2008 / Revised: 13 March 2009 / Accepted: 16 March 2009 / Published: 17 March 2009
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1281 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Southwestern Turkey is a tectonically active area. To determine kinematics and strain distribution in this region, a GPS network of sixteen stations was established. We have used GPS velocity field data for southwest Anatolia from continuous measurements covering the period 2003 to 2006
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Southwestern Turkey is a tectonically active area. To determine kinematics and strain distribution in this region, a GPS network of sixteen stations was established. We have used GPS velocity field data for southwest Anatolia from continuous measurements covering the period 2003 to 2006 to estimate current crustal deformation of this tectonically active region. GPS data were processed using GAMIT/GLOBK software and velocity and strain rate fields were estimated in the study area. The measurements showed velocities of 15-30 mm/yr toward the southwest and strain values up to 0.28-8.23x10-8. Results showed that extension has been determined in the Burdur-Isparta region. In this study, all of strain data reveal an extensional neotectonic regime through the northeast edge of the Isparta Angle despite the previously reported compressional neotectonic regime. Meanwhile, results showed some small differences relatively with the 2006 model of Reilinger et al. As a result, active tectonic movements, in agreement with earthquake fault plane solutions showed important activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Sensory Properties and Color Measurements of Dietary Chocolates with Different Compositions During Storage for Up to 360 Days
Sensors 2009, 9(3), 1996-2016; https://doi.org/10.3390/s90301996
Received: 30 December 2008 / Revised: 4 March 2009 / Accepted: 11 March 2009 / Published: 17 March 2009
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (884 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work sensory characteristics (appearance – color, brilliance, shape and surface; texture – structure, break, firmness and chewiness; aroma – odor and taste) of dietary chocolates of different compositions were evaluated, in parallel with color parameter measurements. Color was determined instrumentally on
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In this work sensory characteristics (appearance – color, brilliance, shape and surface; texture – structure, break, firmness and chewiness; aroma – odor and taste) of dietary chocolates of different compositions were evaluated, in parallel with color parameter measurements. Color was determined instrumentally on the top and bottom surfaces, using a "MINOLTA" Chroma meter CR 400 thristimulus colorimeter. Sensory evaluation was performed by a group of experienced panelists immediately after the production (0 – 30 days), and then after 90, 180, 270 and 360 days of storage under ambient conditions (t = 18 – 20°C). Results were statistically analyzed by the two-factorial analysis of variance (MANOVA) and with the LSD – test. It was concluded that the storage time up to one year had statistically highly significant (p < 0.01) effects on the sensory attributes of chocolate, as well as on instrumentally measured color parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle LULC Classification and Topographic Correction of Landsat-7 ETM+ Imagery in the Yangjia River Watershed: the Influence of DEM Resolution
Sensors 2009, 9(3), 1980-1995; https://doi.org/10.3390/s90301980
Received: 19 December 2008 / Revised: 17 February 2009 / Accepted: 9 March 2009 / Published: 17 March 2009
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (705 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
DEM-based topographic corrections on Landsat-7 ETM+ imagery from rugged terrain, as an effective processing techniques to improve the accuracy of Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) classification as well as land surface parameter retrievals with remotely sensed data, has been frequently reported in the literature.
[...] Read more.
DEM-based topographic corrections on Landsat-7 ETM+ imagery from rugged terrain, as an effective processing techniques to improve the accuracy of Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) classification as well as land surface parameter retrievals with remotely sensed data, has been frequently reported in the literature. However, few studies have investigated the exact effects of DEM with different resolutions on the correction of imagery.Taking the topographic corrections on the Landsat-7 ETM+ images acquired from the rugged terrain of the Yangjiahe river basin (P.R. China) as an example, the present work systematically investigates such issues by means of two commonly used topographic correction algorithms with the support of different spatial resolution DEMs. After the pre-processing procedures, i.e. atmospheric correction and geo-registration, were applied to the ETM+ images, two topographic correction algorithms, namely SCS correction and Minnaert correction, were applied to assess the effects of different spatial resolution DEMs obtained from two sources in the removal of topographic effects and LULC classifications. The results suggested that the topographic effects were tremendously reduced with these two algorithms under the support of different spatial resolution DEMs, and the performance of the topographic correction with the 1:50,000-topographic-map DEM was similar to that achieved using SRTM DEM. Moreover, when the same topographic correction algorithm was applied the accuracy of LULC classification after topographic correction based on 1:50,000-topographic-map DEM was similar as that based on SRTM DEM, which implies that the 90 m SRTM DEM can be used as an alternative for the topographic correction of ETM+ imagery when high resolution DEM is unavailable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Implementation of 3D Optical Scanning Technology for Automotive Applications
Sensors 2009, 9(3), 1967-1979; https://doi.org/10.3390/s90301967
Received: 9 February 2009 / Revised: 3 March 2009 / Accepted: 9 March 2009 / Published: 17 March 2009
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (428 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Reverse engineering (RE) is a powerful tool for generating a CAD model from the 3D scan data of a physical part that lacks documentation or has changed from the original CAD design of the part. The process of digitizing a part and creating
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Reverse engineering (RE) is a powerful tool for generating a CAD model from the 3D scan data of a physical part that lacks documentation or has changed from the original CAD design of the part. The process of digitizing a part and creating a CAD model from 3D scan data is less time consuming and provides greater accuracy than manually measuring the part and designing the part from scratch in CAD. 3D optical scanning technology is one of the measurement methods which have evolved over the last few years and it is used in a wide range of areas from industrial applications to art and cultural heritage. It is also used extensively in the automotive industry for applications such as part inspections, scanning of tools without CAD definition, scanning the casting for definition of the stock (i.e. the amount of material to be removed from the surface of the castings) model for CAM programs and reverse engineering. In this study two scanning experiments of automotive applications are illustrated. The first one examines the processes from scanning to re-manufacturing the damaged sheet metal cutting die, using a 3D scanning technique and the second study compares the scanned point clouds data to 3D CAD data for inspection purposes. Furthermore, the deviations of the part holes are determined by using different lenses and scanning parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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