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Toxin Detection by Surface Plasmon Resonance
Sensors 2009, 9(3), 2117-2133; doi:10.3390/s90302117

Metabolic Discrimination of Select List Agents by Monitoring Cellular Responses in a Multianalyte Microphysiometer

1, 2
1, 1, 2
1, 2,*
1 Department of Chemistry, Vanderbilt University, VU Station B. Nashville, TN 37235, USA 2 Vanderbilt Institute for Integrative Biosystems Research and Education, Vanderbilt University, VU Station B. Nashville, TN 37235. USA 3 Edgewood Chemical and Biological Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010. USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 January 2009 / Revised: 15 March 2009 / Accepted: 17 March 2009 / Published: 23 March 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxin Sensors)
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Harnessing the potential of cells as complex biosensors promises the potential to create sensitive and selective detectors for discrimination of biodefense agents. Here we present toxin detection and suggest discrimination using cells in a multianalyte microphysiometer (MMP) that is capable of simultaneously measuring flux changes in four extracellular analytes (acidification rate, glucose uptake, oxygen uptake, and lactate production) in real-time. Differential short-term cellular responses were observed between botulinum neurotoxin A and ricin toxin with neuroblastoma cells, alamethicin and anthrax protective antigen with RAW macrophages, and cholera toxin, muscarine, 2,4-dinitro-phenol, and NaF with CHO cells. These results and the post exposure dynamics and metabolic recovery observed in each case suggest the usefulness of cell-based detectors to discriminate between specific analytes and classes of compounds in a complex matrix, and furthermore to make metabolic inferences on the cellular effects of the agents. This may be particularly valuable for classifying unknown toxins.
Keywords: toxin; biotoxin; biosensors; microphysiometry toxin; biotoxin; biosensors; microphysiometry
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Eklund, S.E.; Thompson, R.G.; Snider, R.M.; Carney, C.K.; Wright, D.W.; Wikswo, J.; Cliffel, D.E. Metabolic Discrimination of Select List Agents by Monitoring Cellular Responses in a Multianalyte Microphysiometer. Sensors 2009, 9, 2117-2133.

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