Sensors 2009, 9(3), 2148-2161; doi:10.3390/s90302148
Article

Automatic Exudate Detection from Non-dilated Diabetic Retinopathy Retinal Images Using Fuzzy C-means Clustering

1,* email, 1email and 2email
Received: 29 January 2009; in revised form: 19 March 2009 / Accepted: 20 March 2009 / Published: 24 March 2009
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Exudates are the primary sign of Diabetic Retinopathy. Early detection can potentially reduce the risk of blindness. An automatic method to detect exudates from low-contrast digital images of retinopathy patients with non-dilated pupils using a Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) clustering is proposed. Contrast enhancement preprocessing is applied before four features, namely intensity, standard deviation on intensity, hue and a number of edge pixels, are extracted to supply as input parameters to coarse segmentation using FCM clustering method. The first result is then fine-tuned with morphological techniques. The detection results are validated by comparing with expert ophthalmologists’ hand-drawn ground-truths. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), positive likelihood ratio (PLR) and accuracy are used to evaluate overall performance. It is found that the proposed method detects exudates successfully with sensitivity, specificity, PPV, PLR and accuracy of 87.28%, 99.24%, 42.77%, 224.26 and 99.11%, respectively.
Keywords: exudates; diabetic retinopathy; non-dilated retinal images; Fuzzy C-Means clustering
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sopharak, A.; Uyyanonvara, B.; Barman, S. Automatic Exudate Detection from Non-dilated Diabetic Retinopathy Retinal Images Using Fuzzy C-means Clustering. Sensors 2009, 9, 2148-2161.

AMA Style

Sopharak A, Uyyanonvara B, Barman S. Automatic Exudate Detection from Non-dilated Diabetic Retinopathy Retinal Images Using Fuzzy C-means Clustering. Sensors. 2009; 9(3):2148-2161.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sopharak, Akara; Uyyanonvara, Bunyarit; Barman, Sarah. 2009. "Automatic Exudate Detection from Non-dilated Diabetic Retinopathy Retinal Images Using Fuzzy C-means Clustering." Sensors 9, no. 3: 2148-2161.

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