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Proceeding Paper

The Contribution of Tribal Women Entrepreneurs to Long-Term Economic Growth: A Bibliometric Analysis and Prospects for Future Study †

Department of Anthropology and Tribal Studies, Central University of Jharkhand, Ranchi 835222, India
Rajendra Mishra School of Engineering Entrepreneurship, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302, India
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Presented at the 2nd International Online Conference on Agriculture, 1–15 November 2023; Available online:
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 30(1), 9;
Published: 26 December 2023
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Online Conference on Agriculture)


Tribal women entrepreneurship has gained significant attention in recent years as a means to empower women from indigenous communities and foster sustainable development within their societies. However, with the recognition of their unique skills, knowledge, and cultural heritage, tribal women are increasingly embracing entrepreneurship as a pathway to economic self-sufficiency and empowerment. Our research analysed bibliometric data from 2002 to 2023 to see how the field of study on tribal women entrepreneurs has evolved. This study looked at a wide range of factors, including publication details, authorship details, country of origin, and author-related keywords. The R studio Bibliometrix programme was used to make the visuals. The annual output of publications increased by 9.82% after the COVID-19 pandemic, and there was a notable increase in the number of publications on tribal women entrepreneurship. Possible causes include supportive technological development, a thriving environment for new businesses, and government initiatives. India and the United States have produced the most comprehensive studies of entrepreneurship followed by the United Kingdom, but researchers from all over the world have worked together on similar projects. This study has shown that there has been a significant increase in entrepreneurial research activity, as well as demonstrating the breadth and interdisciplinary character of this research. However, more work needs to be carried out to bring together scholars from different fields to examine how different organisations have impacted the study of tribal women entrepreneurs.

1. Introduction

Entrepreneurs play a vital role in the creation of new businesses and start-ups. As these ventures grow and expand, they hire employees, thus contributing to job creation and reducing unemployment rates [1]. More jobs lead to increased consumer spending, which stimulates economic growth, and one of the primary sources of employment in a country is business enterprises. Entrepreneurship businesses create opportunities for many people while also empowering one person. To function effectively, entrepreneurship businesses like start-ups need a variety of people with a range of skill sets, which opens job opportunities for many people in numerous fields [2]. Entrepreneurial activities can significantly contribute to a country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Entrepreneurship in rural and tribal areas can have a significant positive impact on the communities living in such places. It can lead to economic development, empowerment, and sustainable growth. Entrepreneurship in rural and tribal areas should be based on identifying and leveraging local opportunities and resources. This might involve traditional skills, agriculture, handicrafts, or unique cultural assets that can be transformed into viable businesses [3].
Tribal women, as a specific demographic within tribal communities, play a crucial role in the social, economic, and cultural fabric of their societies. They often face unique challenges and opportunities, and addressing their needs and empowering them can have a transformative impact on both the individual and the community. Tribal women, like many women in rural and marginalized communities, may face gender-based discrimination and disparities in access to education, healthcare, and economic opportunities [4]. Encouraging women in tribal communities to become entrepreneurs can lead to their economic empowerment and better social outcomes. Initiatives that support skill development and access to resources for women entrepreneurs can be particularly impactful. Bibliometric analysis helps researchers identify emerging trends and areas of interest within a particular research field. By analysing the frequency and growth of publications on specific topics, researchers can understand the current state of the field and its potential future directions [3]. Therefore, the present research aims to determine the trend analysis in tribal women entrepreneurship and provides data-driven insights and a comprehensive understanding of the research landscape. The work will help institutions and policymakers in making informed decisions, assessing impact, and identifying future research priorities.

2. Material and Methods

The Scopus database was accessed on 21 June 2023 to retrieve the published articles on women entrepreneurship from the years 2002 to 2023 for our study. We selected the advanced search option in the Scopus database to run our query string through two Boolean operators, AND and OR. In this research, the main search terms used to access the Scopus database were “rural development” or “women farmers” or “entrepreneurship” or “women entrepreneurship” or “tribal women” or “women in business” and “women in startups”. A total of 1806 articles were retrieved from the following query string search. For the bibliometric analysis and data retrieval in our study, we used R Studio Bibliometrix and Microsoft Excel. In our study, Microsoft Excel was initially used to filter, download, and produce tables and graphs.

3. Results and Discussion

The inclusion criteria and search terms were used to compile a total of 1806 research papers. The collection was found to have an annual growth rate of 9.82% and an average document age of 5.6 years. There were 74,348 references in total across the collection, with each document receiving an average of 8.22 citations. A total of 3534 authors contributed to the collection, including 321 authors of single-authored documents. The document contents were described by 3392 Keywords plus (ID) and 4420 author’s Keywords (DE). With an average of 2.68 co-authors per document and a global co-authorship rate of 22.15%, the rate of author collaboration was found to be high. A total of 1452 research articles, 111 book chapters, 147 conference papers, 1 data paper, 3 editorials, 5 notes, and 80 reviews made up the collection. These results can aid in future research in this field and offer insightful information about the characteristics of the collection. With an average of 2.68 co-authors per document and a 22.15% international co-authorship rate, the high rate of collaboration indicates the deep involvement of numerous researchers and institutions in this field. Additionally, the high percentage of Author’s Keywords (DE) and Keywords plus (ID) shows that tribal women’s entrepreneurship covers a wide range of subjects, as shown in Table 1. The results imply that tribal women’s entrepreneurship is a dynamic field of study that is growing internationally and merits more attention from academics, industry professionals, and policy makers.

3.1. Most Relevant Source on Tribal Women Entrepreneurship Research

The presented data in Figure 1a encompass a list of the most pertinent sources of research papers on women entrepreneurship published globally during the time spanning from 2002 to 2023. The Emerald Emerging Market Cases emerged as the dominant source with 130 articles, followed by the Journal of Rural Development, the Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economics, the International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, and the Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics. It is noteworthy that the top 15 sources contributed to a total of 470 articles, whereas the remaining 562 articles were dispersed across diverse sources.

3.2. Relevant Source Impact on Tribal Women Entrepreneurship Research

The study evaluated the influence of academic publications by employing a total citations metric to gauge the overall number of citations they received. Figure 1b presents a visual representation of the top 15 sources, as determined by their overall citation count, among the 739 journals that were identified by our search. As expected, the Journal of Business Venturing had the greatest citation count, a trend that aligns with its substantial volume of published works. The citation count of the journal was 1559, indicating a significantly greater number of citations compared to other prominent journals. The sources with the greatest citations, 1389 and 847, respectively, were Entrepreneurship Theory and Practices and Small Business Economics, indicating their significant influence in the field.

3.3. Author Based Analysis on Relevancy

The data depicted in Figure 1c offer valuable insights into the prominent writers and their corresponding publication frequency throughout the period from 2002 to 2023. Kumar A has been identified as the author with the highest level of productivity, having authored a total of 27 articles. Following closely after is Kumar S, who has authored 24 articles. Kumar A had a total of 27 scholarly papers, exhibiting a fractionalized score of 12.35. This score suggests a substantial level of collaboration and involvement with fellow scholars in terms of authorship. The fractionalized scores of Kumar S and Singh S are of particular significance, with values of 7.84 and 9.48, respectively. The obtained scores indicate that the authors in question have made noteworthy contributions to the area, and their study is likely to have had a large influence on the advancement of entrepreneurial research. The data also reveal that a significant number of prominent writers originate from India, suggesting a notable emphasis on women entrepreneurship within the realms of economics and finance studies.

3.4. Country Based Analysis

The dataset pertaining to global collaboration in tribal women entrepreneurship spanning from 2002 to 2023 provides a comprehensive overview of the frequency of collaboration across different nations (refer to Figure 1d). India is a prominent participant in international collaborations pertaining to entrepreneurial research, engaging with several countries across diverse continents. China, the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom, and Germany are among the nations that exhibit a significant frequency of collaborative efforts. It is noteworthy that several collaborations involve nations that were not traditionally associated with women’s businesses, like Brazil, New Zealand, Canada, and Japan. The aforementioned data indicate that the scope of entrepreneurship research extends beyond geographical boundaries, and there is a burgeoning inclination towards intercontinental partnerships within this domain. It is important to acknowledge that the frequency of partnerships exhibits significant variation among countries, with certain nations seeing a limited number of collaborations over the specified timeframe. This observation implies that there exists potential for more international collaboration in the field of entrepreneurial research. India’s position may be attributed to its extensive diversity in tribal populations and abundant flora, as well as its rapidly expanding economy, which serves as a solid basis for carrying out a study on entrepreneurship.

4. Conclusions

The aim of our study was to get the existing database on research pertaining to tribal women entrepreneurship globally from the Scopus database. The field of entrepreneurship study has witnessed a steady expansion, driven by the increasing global interest in economic studies. The frequency of partnerships between nations that have not traditionally been involved in entrepreneurial research is on the rise, suggesting a growing inclination towards cross-continental cooperation. India and the United States are at the forefront of research production, with developed nations also demonstrating substantial engagement in this area. This study will further facilitate the identification of active researchers in the field of entrepreneurial research, fostering global collaboration among scientists. Additionally, given the diversity among tribal communities globally, the experiences and opportunities of tribal women entrepreneurs may vary significantly from region to region.

Author Contributions

S.P. wrote the manuscript, done the literature survey and data analysis; P.P. did the data analysis and revised the manuscript; S.K. did software and data analysis; A.N. conceptualized, structured, revised and corrected the manuscript; M.B. corrected and revised the manuscript. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


This research received no external funding.

Institutional Review Board Statement

Not applicable.

Informed Consent Statement

Not applicable.

Data Availability Statement

The data presented in this study are available upon request from the corresponding authors.


The authors are thankful to the Ministry of Education, the Government of India, for providing fellowships to the research scholars.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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Figure 1. (a) The top 15 most pertinent sources derived from the Bibliometrix analysis, (b) total citations of top 15 productive journals, (c) top 15 relevant authors on women entrepreneurship research, and (d) global collaborative research works.
Figure 1. (a) The top 15 most pertinent sources derived from the Bibliometrix analysis, (b) total citations of top 15 productive journals, (c) top 15 relevant authors on women entrepreneurship research, and (d) global collaborative research works.
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Table 1. Summary of the information that was pulled from the Scopus database using R Studio Bibliometrix.
Table 1. Summary of the information that was pulled from the Scopus database using R Studio Bibliometrix.
General Data Statistics
Sources (journals, books, etc.)739
Annual growth rate %9.82
Document average age5.6
Average citations per doc8.22
Document Contents
Keywords Plus (ID)3392
Author’s Keywords (DE)4420
Authors of single-authored docs321
Author’s Collaboration
Single-authored docs369
Co-authors per doc2.68
International co-authorships %22.15
Document Type
Article in press1
Book chapter111
Conference paper147
Data paper1
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MDPI and ACS Style

Prabhakar, S.; Prabhakar, P.; Kumar, S.; Nimesh, A.; Banerjee, M. The Contribution of Tribal Women Entrepreneurs to Long-Term Economic Growth: A Bibliometric Analysis and Prospects for Future Study. Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 30, 9.

AMA Style

Prabhakar S, Prabhakar P, Kumar S, Nimesh A, Banerjee M. The Contribution of Tribal Women Entrepreneurs to Long-Term Economic Growth: A Bibliometric Analysis and Prospects for Future Study. Biology and Life Sciences Forum. 2024; 30(1):9.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Prabhakar, Sonam, Pawan Prabhakar, Suraj Kumar, Ashok Nimesh, and Mamoni Banerjee. 2024. "The Contribution of Tribal Women Entrepreneurs to Long-Term Economic Growth: A Bibliometric Analysis and Prospects for Future Study" Biology and Life Sciences Forum 30, no. 1: 9.

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