# Wind Energy Potential Ranking of Meteorological Stations of Iran and Its Energy Extraction by Piezoelectric Element

^{1}

^{2}

^{3}

^{4}

^{5}

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. Data Collection and Stations Description

^{2}area with different climates and is located in Central Asia and the Northern Hemisphere. The Alborz and Zagros Mountains ranges in Iran’s north, west, and southwest is mountainous. Iran’s central and eastern regions are deserts. The Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman are the southern edges of Iran. In addition to the mountain range, there is the coastal area of the Caspian Sea in the north. It depicts weather and climate variations in every part of Iran, allowing summer and winter to be felt simultaneously in different areas of the country [29].

#### 2.2. Simulation Procedure

^{3}), V is wind speed (m/s), D is diameter of the bluff body (m), $\mu $ is dynamic viscosity of the air (Pa·s), and $f$ is the vortex shedding frequency (Hz). The shedding from a circular cross-sectioned cylinder occurs when the Reynolds number is in the range of 10

^{2}–10

^{7}, and the Strouhal number approximately is 0.21 [32].

_{0}is projected area and C

_{L}is coefficient of lift force.

_{0}is natural frequency and ζ is damping ratio.

_{b}is the amplitude of piezoelectric beam. By integration of potential Vector D, Piezoelectric charge Q can be obtained in which D and Q are expressed by Equations (6) and (7), where d

_{31}is piezoelectric constant, E

_{b}is Young’s modulus of the piezoelectric cantilever, w (m) is thickness, and L (m) is the length of piezoelectric.

_{b}(V/C) is capacitance of piezoelectric.

#### Energy Harvesting Simulation

^{9}Ω are used to simulate the output voltage at the resonance for energy extraction. The energy harvesting simulation flowchart is presented in Figure 3.

## 3. Results and Discussion

#### 3.1. Zabol

#### 3.2. Siri Island

#### 3.3. Aligudarz

#### 3.4. Energy Harvesting Simulation

#### 3.4.1. Lift Force

^{2}value of the curve fitting to the maximum points of lift force was equivalent to 0.996, which is very close to 1 when a parabolic curve was fitted to the maximum points of lift force at each velocity. This implies that the simulation of the lift force at each velocity is a function of the parabolic curve (Figure 11).

#### 3.4.2. Simulation Based on Piezoelectric Beam I

#### 3.4.3. Simulation Based on Piezoelectric Beam II

#### 3.4.4. Simulation Based on Piezoelectric Beam III

## 4. Conclusions

- The maximum voltage of 1.17 mV has been harvested from the piezoelectric element with dimensions of 18.5 × 1.0016 mm.
- From the second piezoelectric element with 46 × 0.99021 mm dimensions, which has a natural frequency of 630 Hz at its second mode, a voltage of 1.52 mV was extracted.
- The third element with dimensions of 55 × 0.5503 mm, which has a natural frequency of 630 Hz in its third shape mode, can also pick up the maximum voltage of 0.043 mV during amplification.

## Supplementary Materials

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## Abbreviations

$\rho $ | Density |

$\mu $ | Dynamic Viscosity |

V | Wind Speed |

D | Diameter of the bluff body |

St | Strouhal number |

𝑑 | Piezoelectric Charge constant |

s | Compliance of Piezoelectric |

g | Piezoelectric Voltage coefficient |

$f$ | Vortex Shedding frequency |

$Re$ | Reynolds number |

ε | Dielectric Permittivity |

k | Electromechanical Coupling factor |

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Parameters | Value |
---|---|

${d}_{31}$ | 25 × 10^{−12} (C/N) |

${S}_{11}$ | 1.5 × 10^{8} (unitless) |

Ε | 12 (C/Vm) |

${\epsilon}_{0}$ | 8.85 × 10^{−12} (C/Vm) |

${k}_{31}^{2}$ | 0.00088277 (CV/Nm) |

$g$ | 0.235 (Vm/N) |

# | Beam Thickness (mm) | Beam Length (mm) | Moment of Inertia (mm^{4}) | Mode Shape | Natural Frequency (Hz) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

I | 1.0016 | 18.5000 | 0.0837 | First | 630 |

II | 0.9902 | 46.0000 | 0.0809 | Second | 630 |

III | 0.5053 | 55.0000 | 0.0107 | Third | 630 |

Velocity (m/s) | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 |

Lift Force (N/m) | 0.003 | 0.018 | 0.055 | 0.099 | 1.666 | 0.240 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Agah, M.; Sajadian, K.A.; Khanali, M.; Sadeghi, S.M.M.; Khanbazi, M.; Marcu, M.V.
Wind Energy Potential Ranking of Meteorological Stations of Iran and Its Energy Extraction by Piezoelectric Element. *Knowledge* **2022**, *2*, 508-524.
https://doi.org/10.3390/knowledge2030030

**AMA Style**

Agah M, Sajadian KA, Khanali M, Sadeghi SMM, Khanbazi M, Marcu MV.
Wind Energy Potential Ranking of Meteorological Stations of Iran and Its Energy Extraction by Piezoelectric Element. *Knowledge*. 2022; 2(3):508-524.
https://doi.org/10.3390/knowledge2030030

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Agah, Mohammad, Khalil Allah Sajadian, Majid Khanali, Seyed Mohammad Moein Sadeghi, Mehdi Khanbazi, and Marina Viorela Marcu.
2022. "Wind Energy Potential Ranking of Meteorological Stations of Iran and Its Energy Extraction by Piezoelectric Element" *Knowledge* 2, no. 3: 508-524.
https://doi.org/10.3390/knowledge2030030