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Microplastics and Potentially Toxic Elements: Potential Human Exposure Pathways through Agricultural Lands and Policy Based Countermeasures

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Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya 20400, Sri Lanka
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Centre for Environmental Studies and Sustainable Development, The Open University of Sri Lanka, Nugegoda 10250, Sri Lanka
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Department of Biosystems Technology, Faculty of Technology, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Pitipana, Homagama 10200, Sri Lanka
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IGES Centre Collaborating with UNEP on Environmental Technologies (CCET), Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES), 2108-11 Kamiyamaguchi, Hayama 240-0115, Kanagawa, Japan
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Graduate School of Environmental and Information Studies, Tokyo City University, Tsuzuki Ward, Yokohama 224-0015, Kanagawa, Japan
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Hitachi High-Tech Science Corporation, 2-15-5 Shintomi, Chuo City, Tokyo 104-0041, Japan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Nicolas Kalogerakis
Microplastics 2022, 1(1), 102-120; https://doi.org/10.3390/microplastics1010007
Received: 17 December 2021 / Revised: 17 January 2022 / Accepted: 19 January 2022 / Published: 21 January 2022
Microplastics (MPs) have been identified as an emerging soil pollutant and a global environmental concern. Scientists have recently paid attention to the contamination of soil by MPs as their detrimental impacts on soil systems are largely unknown. MPs are considered to be vectors for other soil contaminants, such as potentially toxic elements (PTEs) and organic contaminants. PTEs are persistent contaminants and are often released into soils in large quantities. MPs adsorb PTEs, mainly via electrostatic attraction and surface complexation, and increase their mobility in soils. These complexes can be easily absorbed by plants; hence, the accumulation of PTEs in plants can be enhanced in both microplastic and PTE contaminated soils. Furthermore, there is a high risk of food chains contamination by PTEs due to crops grown in both microplastic and PTE-contaminated soils. Consequently, countermeasures including policy- and governance-based approaches that target circular economy as well as reduce, reuse, recycle (3R) applications are being discussed around the world to minimize the environmental contamination of MPs. View Full-Text
Keywords: microplastics; toxins; plastic-related toxins; plant absorption; contamination path-way; policy and governance microplastics; toxins; plastic-related toxins; plant absorption; contamination path-way; policy and governance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Igalavithana, A.D.; Mahagamage, M.G.Y.L.; Gajanayake, P.; Abeynayaka, A.; Gamaralalage, P.J.D.; Ohgaki, M.; Takenaka, M.; Fukai, T.; Itsubo, N. Microplastics and Potentially Toxic Elements: Potential Human Exposure Pathways through Agricultural Lands and Policy Based Countermeasures. Microplastics 2022, 1, 102-120. https://doi.org/10.3390/microplastics1010007

AMA Style

Igalavithana AD, Mahagamage MGYL, Gajanayake P, Abeynayaka A, Gamaralalage PJD, Ohgaki M, Takenaka M, Fukai T, Itsubo N. Microplastics and Potentially Toxic Elements: Potential Human Exposure Pathways through Agricultural Lands and Policy Based Countermeasures. Microplastics. 2022; 1(1):102-120. https://doi.org/10.3390/microplastics1010007

Chicago/Turabian Style

Igalavithana, Avanthi D., Mahagama G.Y.L. Mahagamage, Pradeep Gajanayake, Amila Abeynayaka, Premakumara J.D. Gamaralalage, Masataka Ohgaki, Miyuki Takenaka, Takayuki Fukai, and Norihiro Itsubo. 2022. "Microplastics and Potentially Toxic Elements: Potential Human Exposure Pathways through Agricultural Lands and Policy Based Countermeasures" Microplastics 1, no. 1: 102-120. https://doi.org/10.3390/microplastics1010007

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