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Review

Parallel Outbreaks of Deadly Pathogens (SARS-CoV-2, H5N8, EVD, Black Fungi) around East Africa and Asia in 2021: Priorities for Outbreak Management with Socio-Economic and Public Health Impact

1
Department of Microbiology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh
2
Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7TJ, Norfolk, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Equal Contributions.
Academic Editor: Guglielmo Campus
COVID 2021, 1(1), 203-217; https://doi.org/10.3390/covid1010017
Received: 13 June 2021 / Revised: 5 August 2021 / Accepted: 11 August 2021 / Published: 13 August 2021
Concurrent waves of coronavirus disease, Ebola virus disease, avian influenza A, and black fungus are jeopardizing lives in some parts of Africa and Asia. From this point of view, this review aims to summarize both the socio-economic and public health implications of these parallel outbreaks along with their best possible management approaches. Online databases (PubMed/PMC/Medline, Publons, ResearchGate, Scopus, Google Scholar, etc.) were used to collect the necessary information regarding these outbreaks. Based on the reports published and analyses performed so far, the long-lasting impacts caused by these simultaneous outbreaks on global socio-economical and public health status can be conceived from the past experiences of outbreaks, especially the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, prolonged restrictions by the local government may lead to food insecurity, global recession, and an enormous impact on the mental health of people of all ages, specifically in developing countries. Such overwhelming effects have already been reported to be declining the national growth of the economy as well as increasing political insecurity and shortage of basic needs. Although various actions have already been taken, including vaccination, clinical management and further research, social distancing, lockdown, etc., to improve the situation, the emerging variants and associated genetic mutations may make containment difficult, worsening the situation again. So, considering the current mutational dynamics of the pathogens and past experiences, perpetual preparedness along with updated clinical management backed by epidemiological studies and innovative scientific effort are inevitable to combat the simultaneous waves of multiple infectious diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; EVD; H5N8; BF; socio-economic impact; public health impact; measurements COVID-19; EVD; H5N8; BF; socio-economic impact; public health impact; measurements
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MDPI and ACS Style

Khan, A.; Ema, N.T.; Rakhi, N.N.; Saha, O.; Ahamed, T.; Rahaman, M.M. Parallel Outbreaks of Deadly Pathogens (SARS-CoV-2, H5N8, EVD, Black Fungi) around East Africa and Asia in 2021: Priorities for Outbreak Management with Socio-Economic and Public Health Impact. COVID 2021, 1, 203-217. https://doi.org/10.3390/covid1010017

AMA Style

Khan A, Ema NT, Rakhi NN, Saha O, Ahamed T, Rahaman MM. Parallel Outbreaks of Deadly Pathogens (SARS-CoV-2, H5N8, EVD, Black Fungi) around East Africa and Asia in 2021: Priorities for Outbreak Management with Socio-Economic and Public Health Impact. COVID. 2021; 1(1):203-217. https://doi.org/10.3390/covid1010017

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khan, Afroza, Nayeema Talukder Ema, Nadira Naznin Rakhi, Otun Saha, Tamer Ahamed, and Md. Mizanur Rahaman. 2021. "Parallel Outbreaks of Deadly Pathogens (SARS-CoV-2, H5N8, EVD, Black Fungi) around East Africa and Asia in 2021: Priorities for Outbreak Management with Socio-Economic and Public Health Impact" COVID 1, no. 1: 203-217. https://doi.org/10.3390/covid1010017

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