PBeL—A Novel Problem-Based (e-)Learning for Geomatics Students
- Refer back to the learning objectives or learning outcomes. There is a difference of opinion as to whether learning goal formulations are still up-to-date or whether competence orientation should be focused on. Competence-oriented learning goal formulation is carried out at TU Wien (Vienna University of Technology) by  for the creation of learning-outcome-oriented descriptions for modules and courses. The clearer the intended learning outcomes (for the entire course and individual units within the course), the more flexible the methodological response can be. The formulation of the learning outcome comes before the selection of the method.
- The teaching–learning arrangements need to be fine-tuned. This means that we cannot think in units or blocks but in areas that can be defined as finely as possible. This allows the teacher to change the timing of the event more quickly.
- We need to reflect on how to decide which content or methods have to take place online or in person. For example, consider surveying education where field practicals must be held in presence and not just online. Otherwise, the students will miss the skills of practical work, such as setting up a tripod on a measuring point, for instance.
2. Didactic Aspects of Media-Supported Teaching
2.1. The Didactic Triple Jump
- Formulating learning outcomes—What should students be able to do and know?
- Proof of achievement—How is it assessed whether they have achieved the learning outcome (i.e., What can students do)?
- Learning activities—How do students practice to achieve the learning outcome?
- After successful completion of the course, students can solve linear systems of equations;
- Written examination with an example in which a linear system of equations has to be solved;
- As practice examples, linear systems of equations are solved.
- Technical and methodological skills:
- Technical competences—expertise;
- Methodological competences—Methods applied in the subject;
- Cognitive and practical skills:
- Cognitive competences (trans-disciplinary competences)—Networked thinking, thinking within context, abstract thinking, critical thinking, analytical ability, problem-solving competence;
- Practical skills: Applying technical and methodological competences;
- Social competences and self-competences (trans-disciplinary competences):
- Social skills: teamwork, conflict skills, communication skills, presentation skills;
- Self-competences: self-organization, perseverance, initiative, innovation.
2.2. Course of Action to Progress from Presence to Media-Supported Teaching
2.3. Social Dimensions of Online Teaching
- Inputs to time management;
- Working/learning time—guidance for expected working time;
- Forming learning groups in the virtual space;
- Emphasis on the most important learning materials;
- Organizational information on teaching content;
- Submission/feedback—set date, calculate effort for feedback.
2.4. Learning Activity—Elements to Support the Acquisition of Knowledge
2.5. Role of the Teacher as a Moderator
- Stage 1: Access and Motivation—the e-moderators role is to welcome and encourage participants to interact;
- Stage 2: Online Socialization—familiarizing and providing bridges between cultural, social, and learning environments;
- Stage 3: Information Exchange—facilitating tasks and supporting the use of learning materials;
- Stage 4: Knowledge Construction—facilitating the process, the moderator provides guides and integrates the different construction elements and helps in leading participants toward completion of their project;
- Stage 5: Development—supporting and responding; a student is a confident online learner and develops his/her new knowledge to demonstrate achievements in assessment.
2.6. Communication with Students during the Lecture
2.7. Learning Materials for Students
- What is to be done?
- Which work equipment is to be used?
- How are the tasks scheduled and what is the social form?
- How is the monitoring and advice services to be organized?
- What should the final product look like?
- How is the feedback organized?
- How is the performance review assessed?
2.8. Communication and Collaboration Recommendations
- Learning outcomes for each course and course unit of the course should be explicitly communicated;
- Start with motivating introductory words and work on increasing students’ intrinsic motivation and not adding to their extrinsic motivation (e.g., fear of failure):
- Communicate the expected activities that students need to perform;
- Provide ‘smaller bites’ to students to keep their attention;
- Come up with periodic activities to reset the students’ attention span during the lectures;
- Facilitate students’ socialization within smaller groups;
- Use short learning videos and other digital resources instead and/or in addition to recorded lectures;
- Dissolve the overall lecture contents into individual teaching topics;
- Subdivide the course content into sensible sections;
- Keep editing and reflecting on texts and videos used in the lectures based on the students’ feedback and response to the material;
- Provide swift accompaniment and advisory services for the students.
- Relationship level—Appreciating, motivating language in online instructions (oral and written);
- Ways to ask questions and criticize—Comments to be made;
- Organize opportunities for students—Collaboration.
3. Problem-Based Learning (PBL) Pedagogy
3.1. PBL Cycle
3.2. PBL vs. Classical Learning
3.3. Role of the Teacher and the Student in PBL
3.4. Bloom’s Taxonomy for PBL
- The cognitive—knowledge-based domain, consisting of six levels;
- The affective—attitudinal-based domain, consisting of five levels;
- The psychomotor—skills-based domain, consisting of six levels.
- Remembering—Can the student recall or remember the information?
- Understanding—Can the student explain ideas or concepts?
- Applying—Can the student use information in a new way?
- Analyzing—Can the student distinguish between the different parts?
- Evaluating—Can the student justify a stand or decision?
- Creating—Can the student create a new product or point of view?
- Objectives (learning goals) are important to establish in a pedagogical interchange so that teachers and students alike understand the purpose of that interchange;
- Teachers can benefit from using frameworks to organize objectives;
- Organizing objectives helps to clarify objectives for themselves and for students;
- Having an organized set of objectives helps teachers to:
3.5. PBL Courses in Geomatics
3.5.1. Examples of PBL Courses in the Existing Literature
3.5.2. Examples of PBL Courses at TUW and NTUA
4. Enhancement of PBL by e-Learning PBeL
4.1. The PBeL Concept
4.2. Application of Bloom’s Taxonomy for the Courses’ Development
- Remembering—describe the procedure for setting up and leveling a tripod on a measuring point;
- Understanding—summarize what the main steps are;
- Applying—try it out in the field;
- Analyzing—differentiate between centering and leveling;
- Evaluating—assess the right procedure;
- Creating—create a list of steps to be followed on.
- The course modules with competency descriptions;
- The syllabus for each course, including a complete list of lesson topics and learning outcomes;
- The complete updated program.
4.3. Modernization of Education as Part of the LBS2ITS Project
- Personal mobility—part of understanding travel behavior;
- Sustainable transport—part of mobility concepts and evaluation;
- Public transport—part of mobility concepts and evaluation;
- Transportation in smart cities—part of mobility concepts and evaluation;
- Transportation management—part of traffic engineering (safety and traffic quality management);
- Traffic flow monitoring and guidance—part of traffic engineering;
- Traveler information systems—part of traffic engineering/transport demand management;
- Crowd monitoring and guidance—part of understanding travel behavior, might also be part of traffic engineering/transport demand management;
- Ubiquitous PNT for LBS—part of geomatics/geodesy;
- GNSS and its augmentation—part of geomatics/geodesy;
- Pedestrian localization in challenging environments—part of geomatics/geodesy, as well as LBS;
- Smartphone localization—part of LBS;
- Cooperative solutions—part of geomatics/geodesy, might also be part of LBS;
- Sensor fusion and estimation techniques—part of geomatics/geodesy;
- Multimedia cartography and GIS—part of cartography;
- Spatial data handling—part of cartography and GIS, etc.
4.4. Pilot Course Implementation Strategy
- Training material, such as lectures, practicals, e-learning, etc., for six intensive courses in LBS and transportation prepared to train a limited number of the teaching staff from the participating HEIs;
- A portfolio of teaching material for six fully modernized subject areas that focus on LBS and transportation;
- A portfolio of teaching material for newly developed core course modules on LBS/ geomatics and transportation/smart mobility;
- A portfolio of workshop material, including material on core curriculum course modules development, e-learning and PBL, QA in teaching;
- Digital resource kits for e-learning and student interaction (e.g., Moodle web server, App-based course evaluation) and video recording tools for archiving lectures, practical training, etc.;
- A wide range of fully tested and functioning scientific equipment ranging from low-cost localization/data transfer systems (e.g., smartphones and/or PDAs) to high-grade positioning units (e.g., GNSS receivers) to act as the core infrastructure for LBS and for validating low-cost ones.
4.5. Introducing PBeL to TUW
5. The LBS2ITS Project
5.1. About LBS2ITS
5.2. Current Situation in Higher Education in Sri Lanka
- Sri Lankan Higher Education Institutes (HEIs) do not have enough teachers that are proficient in modern technologies and LBS courses in particular to teach about those topics.
- Teaching methods rely on traditional didactic methods, while teaching staff is still used to teacher-centered pedagogy models.
- Due to limited government funding, many universities in Sri Lanka lack modern equipment and software.
- LBS and transportation curriculum are not adapted to the current needs of the national and global labor market environment.
- HEIs are state institutions that share a common development model and culture. However, there is no close and formalized cooperation among technical oriented HEIs in LBS/transportation education.
- The links between academia and industry in the project theme are minimal with low direct transfer of knowledge and innovation.
5.3. Major Project Goals and Links to PBL Pedagogy
5.4. The Role of LBS in ITS
- “Understanding travel behavior”: LBS has the potential to collect big and more diverse and less-costly data compared to traditional data collection methods;
- “Modelling”: LBS opens the opportunity of big data collection in real- time, giving rise to many opportunities for the development of new transport models;
- “Navigation and mobile guides”: LBS in navigation provides the basis for new services towards critical-safety and liability/ethical-critical applications for transport;
- “Assistive systems”: These LBS applications refer to non-navigation applications relating to assist road users. Examples include warnings issued to drivers when a cyclist approaches, lane departure warnings, as well as adaptive cruise control tools;
- “Optimization of traffic flows/transport demand management”: These LBS applications aim at maximizing the efficiency of a transport system (e.g., parking management);
- “Location based gaming”: Usually, they refer to “urban gaming” or “street games”. Typically, they are multi-player location-based games played out on city streets and built up urban environments;
- Other: These may include marketing, education, logistics, and goods transportation.
5.5. LBS Education
5.6. The LBS2ITS Project Workshop on e-Learning and PBL Pedagogy and the Main Takeaway
- Transportation system planning for smart cities;
- Alternative PNT (Positioning, Navigation and Timing) technologies;
- Estimation theory and processing of spatial data;
- Data and models in transportation;
- Smartphone positioning techniques for in- and outdoor localization;
- LBS and multi-media cartography.
6. Conclusions and Outlook
- We will first define professional competences needed for graduates of geomatics and transportation science programs based on the needs of the related industries and stakeholders. These competences should enable graduates to be employable in the free labor market.
- We will then define a list of course modules that will lead students to the defined and desirable competences.
- We will ensure that students have learned what they are supposed to learn and that teaching and assessment activities focus on learning outcomes. For this purpose, we will define learning outcomes for every lesson in a course module.
Conflicts of Interest
- Freund, R.; Vrabl, O. Preparation of Learning Outcome-Oriented Descriptions for Modules and Courses—Guide for Course Leaders and Module Managers at TU Wien—Vienna University of Technology. (in German: Erstellung von Lernergebnisorientierten Beschreibungen für Module und Lehrveranstaltungen—Leitfaden* für Leiter_innen von Lehrveranstaltungen und Modulverantwortliche an der TU Wien). 2017. Available online: https://www.tuwien.at/fileadmin/Assets/studium/Hochschuldidaktik/Dokumente/AnleitungLernergebnisse_aktual.pdf (accessed on 28 December 2021).
- Mc Tierna, K.; Leahy, M.; Walsh, I.; Sloane, P.; Smith, M. The ‘Triple Jump’ Assessment in Problem Based Learning: An Evaluative Method Used in the Appraisal of both Knowledge Acquisition and Problem Solving Skills. Case 19. In Case Studies of Good Practices in Assessment of Student Learning in Higher Education; O’Neill, G., Huntley-Moore, S., Race, P., Eds.; AISHE: Dublin, Ireland, 2007; pp. 116–119. Available online: http://www.tara.tcd.ie/handle/2262/60450 (accessed on 30 December 2021).
- Herbst, I. Didactic Aspects of Media-Supported Teaching (in German: Didaktische Aspekte mediengestützter Lehre). 2021. Presented at the Didactic Aspects of Media-Supported Teaching Workshop Held at TU Wien. Available online: www.medienpaed.com/oai?verb=ListRecordsset=medienpaed:issuearticlemetadataPrefix=oaidc (accessed on 30 December 2021).
- David, L. Possible Formats of e-Learning (in German: Mögliche Formate des E Learning). 2021. Available online: https://www.commit.at/fileadmin/Seminarunterlagen/Unterlagen_Jour_Fixe_Online/ELearning_MoeglicheFormate.pdf (accessed on 28 December 2021).
- Middendorf, J.; Kalish, A. The “change-up” in lectures. Natl. Teach. Learn. Forum 1996, 5, 1–5. [Google Scholar]
- Salmon, G. E-Moderating Introduction. Available online: https://www.gillysalmon.com/e-moderating.html (accessed on 29 December 2021).
- Hung, W.; Jonassen, D.; Liu, R. Problem-Based Learning. In Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology, 3rd ed.; Jonassen, D., Spector, M.J., Driscoll, M., Merrill, M.D., Van Merrienboer, J., Driscoll, M.P., Eds.; Routledge: New York, NY, USA, 2007; Chapter 38; pp. 485–506. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Fini, E.H.; Awadallah, F.; Parast, M.M.; Abu-Lebdeh, T. The impact of project-based learning on improving student learning outcomes of sustainability concepts in transportation engineering courses. Eur. J. Eng. Educ. 2018, 43, 473–488. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Savery, J. Overview of Problem-based Learning: Definitions and Distinctions. Interdiscip. J. Probl.-Based Learn. 2006, 1, 9–20. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Barrows, H.S.; Tamblyn, R.M. Problem-Based Learning: An Approach to Medical Education; Springer Publishing Company: New York, NY, USA, 1980. [Google Scholar]
- Taboada, M.F.Á.; Martínez, M.F.; Pérez, J.R.R.; Ablanedo, E.S. Problem Based Learning (PBL) and E-learning in geodetic engineering, cartography and surveying education in the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) frame. A case study in the University of Leon (Spain): Experiences and results. In Proceedings of the XXIII International FIG Congress INTERGEO, Munich, Germany, 8–13 October 2006. [Google Scholar]
- Vázquez, V.N.; Aveleira, O.J.L.; Pérez, P.N.; Leyva, R.A.R. Project Based Learning to Enhance Environmental Education through Automobile Mechanics. J. Probl.-Based Learn. 2019, 6, 76–84. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Božić, B.; Pejić, M.; Tucikešić, S. Project oriented problem based learning: The first experiances of using this approach at the study program of Geodesy and geoinformatics (in Serbian: Projektno orijentisan problemski zasnovan model učenja—Prva iskustva u primeni modela u okviru studijskog programa Geodezija i geoinformatika). Tehnika 2020, 75, 23–28. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Abdullah, J.; Mohd-Isa, W.N.; Samsudin, M.A. Virtual reality to improve group work skill and self-directed learning in problem-based learning narratives. Virtual Real. 2019, 23, 461–471. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Pasi, B.; Shinde, V.; Chavan, M. Teacher’s perception towards their role in Course Level Project-Based Learning environment. J. Eng. Educ. Transform. 2019, 33, 91–94. [Google Scholar]
- Bloom, B.S.; Engelhart, M.D.; Furst, E.J.; Hill, W.H.; Krathwohl, D.R. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals; David McKay Company: New York, NY, USA, 1956. [Google Scholar]
- Forehand, M. Bloom’s Taxonomy—From Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching and Technology. 2005. Available online: https://www.d41.org/cms/lib/IL01904672/Centricity/Domain/422/BloomsTaxonomy.pdf (accessed on 30 December 2021).
- Anderson, L.W.; Krathwohl, D.R.; Airasian, P.W.; Cruikshank, K.A.; Mayer, R.E.; Pintrich, P.R.; Raths, J.; Wittrock, M.C. A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives; Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.: Boston, MA, USA, 2001. [Google Scholar]
- Armstrong, P. Bloom’s Taxonomy. Available online: https://evawintl.org/wp-content/uploads/Blooms-Taxonomy.pdf (accessed on 30 December 2021).
- Overbaugh, R.C.; Schultz, L. Bloom’s Taxonomy. 2014. Available online: http://fitnyc.edu/files/pdfs/CET_TL_BloomsTaxonomy.pdf (accessed on 30 December 2021).
- Perrenet, J.C.; Bouhuijs, P.A.J.; Smits, J.G.M.M. The Suitability of Problem-based Learning for Engineering Education: Theory and practice. Teach. High. Educ. 2000, 5, 345–358. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ferguson, C. Using the Revised Taxonomy to Plan and Deliver Team-Taught, Integrated, Thematic Units. Theory Pract. 2002, 41, 238–243. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Noble, T. Integrating the Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy with Multiple Intelligences: A planning tool for curriculum differentiation. Teach. Coll. Rec. 2004, 106, 193–211. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Retscher, G.; Gikas, V.; Gerike, R. Curricula Enrichment for Sri Lankan Universities Delivered through the Application of Location-Based Services to Intelligent Transport Systems. In Proceedings of the FIG e-Working Week 2021, Apeldoorn, The Netherlands, 20–25 June 2021; p. 10865. [Google Scholar]
- Huang, H.; Gartner, G.; Krisp, J.M.; Raubal, M.; De Weghe, N.V. Location based services: Ongoing evolution and research agenda. J. Locat. Based Serv. 2018, 12, 63–93. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
|Online administration platform |
such as TUW TISS *
|Online administration platform |
such as TUW TISS *
|In classroom, teachers rely on established |
services, such as spatial management, etc.
|A virtual room has to be arranged and |
organized by yourself
|Control of what is happening |
in the classroom
|Instructional content must have |
explanatory information supplemented
|Educational material with low requirement |
such as scripts or presentations
|Requirements for digital material |
|Primary one-way communication||Organizational costs including synchronous |
and asynchronous communication
|Discussion after the end of a lecture |
with the teacher in person
|Leaving virtual room open |
for possible questions
|Office hours||Virtual office hours|
|Examination: written, oral, |
|Online exams: new methods, |
|Component||Classical Approach||e-Learning Variants|
|Lecture Explanation||Lecture in classroom||Audiovisual and text-based |
|Appropriation of knowledge||Lecture notes Books||Audiovisual and text-based |
|Solving tasks, calculating |
examples, completing orders
|Quizzes, tutorials, online tasks, |
and peer feedback
|Produce something||Reports, posters, essays||Create tasks digitally|
|Cooperative learning||Group work |
|Collaborative text work, forms |
of communication, online
|Office hours (via VC): setting time, |
duration, organizational aspects
|News forum: announcements, |
organizational (one-way communication)
|Online lecture (via VC): interaction, e.g., breaks, |
discussions between students, chat questions
|Support student forums: observe time |
and personnel costs
|Students learn content knowledge and |
practice context-free problems
|Embeds students learning processes|
in real-life problems
|Problem (project) is a creation of the teacher |
with concrete instructions
|Problem (project) is a creation of |
a group of students
|Assessment based on the student’s ability |
to reproduce told knowledge
|Assessment based on more elements: |
creativity, active participation, leadership,
level of general and technical knowledge,
ability to find resources, etc.
|Knowledge (L1)||– knowledge of facts|
|Description||The learners repeat what they have learned before. The test material had|
|to be memorized or practiced.|
|Conjugation||specify, write down, enumerate, record, execute, name, describe,|
|designate, represent, reproduce, complete, draw, show, reproduce|
|Comprehension (L2)||– understanding,|
|– justify with your own words|
|Description||The learners explain e.g., a term, a formula, a fact or a device. Their|
|understanding is reflected in the fact that they also present what they have|
|learned in a context that is different from the context in which they have|
|learned. For example, learners can explain a situation in colloquial|
|language or present the context graphically.|
|Conjugation||justify, describe, interpret, classify, explain, interpret, arrange, specify,|
|describe, translate, transfer, rewrite, differentiate, clarify, compare, reproduce|
|Application (L3)||– implementation of one-dimensional learning content|
|– examples from own practice|
|Description||The learners apply something they have learned in a new situation. This|
|application situation has not yet occurred.|
|Conjugation||assess, link, apply, set up, execute, justify, calculate, determine, prove,|
|perform, classify, create, develop, interpret, formulate, solve, modify,|
|quantify, realize, translate, differentiate, rewrite, clarify|
|Analysis (L4)||– disassembly into individual parts|
|– case studies|
|Description||The learners break down models, processes, etc. into their components.|
|In complex situations, they have to discover the principles of structure|
|or internal structures. They see connections.|
|Conjugation||derive, analyze, dissolve, describe, present, circle, recognize, contrast, categorize,|
|identify, isolate, classify, prove, investigate, compare, capture, assign|
|Synthesis (L5)||– networking and optimizing|
|– represent interdisciplinary|
|– project tasks|
|Description||The learners show a constructive performance. They have to put together|
|different parts that they have not yet experienced or seen together. From|
|their point of view, they have to produce a creative output. However, the|
|new is not yet present in the experience or knowledge of the learners.|
|Conjugation||writing, building, setting up, elaborating, defining, designing,|
|developing, explaining, designing, combining, constructing, solving,|
|optimizing, organizing, planning, writing, assembling|
|Evaluation (L6)||Corresponds to L4 with additional assessment by learners.|
|Description||The learners assess a model, solution, approach, process or something|
|similar as a whole in terms of its appropriateness or internal structure. You|
|know, for example, the model, its components and, in addition, the quality|
|adequacy, the internal consistency or functionality. They must make a|
|judgment about this in order to solve the problem properly.|
|Conjugation||express, select, evaluate, evaluate, evaluate, differentiate, decide, infer, weigh,|
|measure, test, qualify, judge, simplify, compare, represent, evaluate, refute|
|Ability to deliver short learning videos.||Need for theoretical lectures and practical|
|Access to experts and researchers from |
around the globe.
|1. Finding real-world problems.|
|2. Inter-disciplinary approach.|
|Learning outcomes, goals, and expectations |
can be well detailed and documented
on the e-learning platform.
|Students not welcoming the concept due to |
unfamiliarity with PBL and what is expected
|1. Required more active role of students.||Intrinsic active role of students.|
|2. Lack of students’ motivation.|
|Utilizing online tools for communication.||In person communication.|
|PBL Segment||Applied e-Learning Concept|
|Problem definition |
Step 1 in Figure 3
|Online session from field experts.|
|Clarification and understanding of the problem |
Step 1 in Figure 3
|Moderation tools such as chats and forums.|
|Online group sessions.|
|A priori knowledge |
Step 2 in Figure 3
|Digital materials (e.g., videos).|
Step 5 in Figure 3
|Digital materials (e.g., videos).|
|Access to different experts.|
|Online group sessions.|
|Presentation of the results |
Step 6 in Figure 3
Step 7 in Figure 3
|Polls during the semester.|
|Online form for assessment.|
|1||Lecture: PBeL. Introduction to the GNSS challenged and denied environments.|
|Practical: Providing students with materials to find a problem.|
|Outcome: Submission of the initial problem idea.|
|2||Lecture: Going over all suggested topics and brainstorming on improvement.|
|Students cooperate in choosing the topics.|
|Practical: Students polish their problem that needs solving.|
|Outcome: Submission of the problem, initial plan, and motivation for the |
choice of problem.
|3||Lecture: Defining all the terms necessary to understand the problems better.|
|Practical: Students attempt to solve the problems with their a priori knowledge.|
|Lecture and practical: Self-study with guidance of the teacher. Teacher helps students |
to find the resources. Students exchange acquired knowledge. For example,
students may have to learn how Kalman Filter works and how to fuse Ultra Wide
Band (UWB) and Global Positioning System (GPS) data. In practicals, they may try
to program their KF and sensor-fusion.
|Outcome: Students write a brief report about their literature review and |
practical tasks they have performed.
|Lecture and practical: Based on the acquired knowledge, students start solving the |
problem they defined in the Week 2. Teacher guides them to a positive conclusion of
their problem solving. Students are encouraged to already start writing/documenting
their methodology and steps.
|11||Lecture and practical: Students write their final report. Previous submissions are used |
as part of the report: problem and motivation definition become introduction, and
literature review becomes the background section.
|Outcome: Written scientific report.|
|12||Lecture and practicals Each group gives a presentation to other groups. Every |
presentation is followed by a brief discussion. Other TUW staff members are invited
to participate and provide their input and opinion.
|13||Students assess themselves, their peers, PBL process, and the teacher at the end of|
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Share and Cite
Retscher, G.; Gabela, J.; Gikas, V. PBeL—A Novel Problem-Based (e-)Learning for Geomatics Students. Geomatics 2022, 2, 76-106. https://doi.org/10.3390/geomatics2010006
Retscher G, Gabela J, Gikas V. PBeL—A Novel Problem-Based (e-)Learning for Geomatics Students. Geomatics. 2022; 2(1):76-106. https://doi.org/10.3390/geomatics2010006Chicago/Turabian Style
Retscher, Guenther, Jelena Gabela, and Vassilis Gikas. 2022. "PBeL—A Novel Problem-Based (e-)Learning for Geomatics Students" Geomatics 2, no. 1: 76-106. https://doi.org/10.3390/geomatics2010006