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Article

Synergistic Effect of Co-Administered SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines Improves Immune Responses in BALB/c Mice: A Preliminary Study

by
Nshimirimana Jonas
1,*,
Josephine Kimani
2,
James Kimotho
3,
Matthew Mutinda Munyao
4 and
Samson Muuo Nzou
4,5
1
Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Pan African University Institute for Basic Sciences, Technology and Innovation, Nairobi P.O. Box 62000-00200, Kenya
2
Department of Biochemistry, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi P.O. Box 62000-00200, Kenya
3
Innovation and Technology Transfer Department, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi P.O. Box 54840-00200, Kenya
4
Centre for Microbiology Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi P.O. Box 54840-00200, Kenya
5
Nagasaki University Institute of Tropical Medicine, Kenya Medical Research Institute Project, Nairobi P.O. Box 54840-00200, Kenya
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Immuno 2024, 4(2), 172-185; https://doi.org/10.3390/immuno4020012
Submission received: 8 March 2024 / Revised: 22 April 2024 / Accepted: 31 May 2024 / Published: 7 June 2024
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Immunology and Vaccines)

Abstract

Various vaccine platforms have been approved for broad use to prevent the transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. However, these vaccines exhibit distinct differences in immunogenicity and efficacy, which decline after vaccination and are further exacerbated by the emergence of virus variants and mutants. This study reports the immunization outcomes against the SARS-CoV-2 virus by assessing the immune responses and safety of different SARS-CoV-2 vaccines co-administered in BALB/c mice. Vaccine combinations comprising mRNA/adenovirus26-vector, mRNA/inactivated, adenovirus26-vector/inactivated, and mRNA/adenovirus26-vector/inactivated vaccines were prepared in optimized doses, and their activities upon immunization evaluated in comparison with individual mRNA, adenovirus26-vectored, and inactivated vaccines. Fourteen- and 28-days post-immunization, we measured spike-specific IgG response using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), cytokine expression profiles through Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and evaluated safety through histopathological examination. The mRNA/Vector/Inactivated group exhibited slightly higher anti-spike IgG levels, albeit not statistically significant (p > 0.132). Importantly, this regimen induced elevated IL-6 and IFN-γ mRNA expression levels (p < 0.0001) compared to immunization with individual vaccines. In summary, this study demonstrated that co-administering the mRNA/adenovirus26 vector/inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines improved spike-specific IgG response, triggered significantly enhanced IL-6 and IFN-γ mRNA expression levels, and proved safe in mice.
Keywords: mRNA vaccine; adenovirus26 vector vaccine; inactivated vaccine; SARS-CoV-2; co-administration; immune responses; BALB/c mice mRNA vaccine; adenovirus26 vector vaccine; inactivated vaccine; SARS-CoV-2; co-administration; immune responses; BALB/c mice

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MDPI and ACS Style

Jonas, N.; Kimani, J.; Kimotho, J.; Munyao, M.M.; Nzou, S.M. Synergistic Effect of Co-Administered SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines Improves Immune Responses in BALB/c Mice: A Preliminary Study. Immuno 2024, 4, 172-185. https://doi.org/10.3390/immuno4020012

AMA Style

Jonas N, Kimani J, Kimotho J, Munyao MM, Nzou SM. Synergistic Effect of Co-Administered SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines Improves Immune Responses in BALB/c Mice: A Preliminary Study. Immuno. 2024; 4(2):172-185. https://doi.org/10.3390/immuno4020012

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jonas, Nshimirimana, Josephine Kimani, James Kimotho, Matthew Mutinda Munyao, and Samson Muuo Nzou. 2024. "Synergistic Effect of Co-Administered SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines Improves Immune Responses in BALB/c Mice: A Preliminary Study" Immuno 4, no. 2: 172-185. https://doi.org/10.3390/immuno4020012

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