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Exploring the Association between Cannabis Use and Testosterone Levels in Men Receiving Methadone Maintenance Treatment

Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8P 1H6, Canada
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8N 3K7, Canada
Guy’s and St Thomas’ Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London SE1 9RT, UK
Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Psychiatry Int. 2020, 1(2), 67-74;
Received: 28 August 2020 / Revised: 14 October 2020 / Accepted: 15 October 2020 / Published: 25 October 2020
Cannabis and opioids are substances that affect reproductive health. Opioids suppress testosterone and studies have shown that cannabis may increase testosterone. However, there is minimal research describing the endocrine effects of concurrent cannabis and opioid use. We hypothesize that cannabis use improves opioid-induced testosterone suppression. To test this hypothesis, we used cross-sectional data from a prospective cohort study including 122 men enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). We measured serum testosterone with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at study enrolment. Urine drug screens were collected for 15 months and identified 52.5% of participants (n = 64) as cannabis users. The association between cannabis use and testosterone level was examined using regression models with serum testosterone as the dependent variable. In our multivariable regression, methadone dose was associated with lower serum testosterone (β = −0.003, 95% CI-0.005, −0.001, p = 0.003). However, neither cannabis use as a dichotomous variable nor the percentage of cannabis-positive urine drug screens were significantly associated with serum testosterone (β = 0.143, 95% CI −0.110, 0.396, p = 0.266, and β = 0.002, 95% CI > −0.001, 0.005, p = 0.116, respectively). Therefore, it does not appear that cannabis has an association with testosterone levels in men on MMT. View Full-Text
Keywords: cannabis; testosterone; methadone maintenance therapy; opioids cannabis; testosterone; methadone maintenance therapy; opioids
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Chai, D.; Rosic, T.; Bawor, M.; Samaan, Z. Exploring the Association between Cannabis Use and Testosterone Levels in Men Receiving Methadone Maintenance Treatment. Psychiatry Int. 2020, 1, 67-74.

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