2. Previous Research
During recent years, the field of journalism studies has been organized to study the ideas of professionalism and professional cultures. Journalists’ professional identities and the values in journalism cultures have been richly studied, above all because of transnational comparative research projects. Building upon the previous efforts to inquire into the professional practitioners’ identities across the globe (Weaver 1998
; Weaver and Willnat 2012
; Willnat et al. 2013
), the Worlds of Journalism Study (WJS) conducted a number of cross-country comparisons of the central dimensions of journalistic cultures across the world (Hanitzsch et al. 2019
), including the Nordic countries. The Journalistic Role Performance project (JRP) studied journalists’ role conceptions, performances and enactments (Mellado et al. 2017
), providing a more global context for regional examinations. These projects dissected the anatomy of the journalistic professionalism and pointed out differences in different parts of the world; thus, also marking a place for the Nordic journalism culture (Hovden and Väliverronen 2021
; Ahva et al. 2017
) and providing frameworks for inquiring into stakeholders’ views on journalism.
Complementing the studies of journalists and journalistic cultures, journalism students have also been surveyed. The project Journalism Students across the Globe: Professionalization, Identity and Challenges in a Changing Environment (JSG) conducted simultaneous surveys of journalism students from 2011 to 2015, exploring their interests and experiences (see e.g., Hanusch and Mellado 2014
; Hanusch et al. 2015a
). Together with national initiatives, the study has led to increased information on Nordic journalism students, including their preferred future areas of work, interest in different journalistic beats, practical work and internship experience, study motivations and assessment of future threats to journalism (Hovden and Nymark Esperås 2014
; Mäenpää and Ahva 2017
; Stigbrand and Nygren 2013
). The Hovdabrekka project collected Nordic educators and researchers to survey journalism students in Denmark (incl. Greenland), Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, which resulted in an anthology (Hovden et al. 2016
). In addition, the impact of journalism education on students’ socialization into industry professionals has been studied in different parts of the world (Jackson et al. 2020
; Vasilendiuc and Sutu 2021
; Williams et al. 2018
; Hanusch et al. 2015a
; Hanusch 2013
; Rimestad and Gravengaard 2016
In this context, the studies of journalism educators have not been recently studied in the Nordics. Sloan
) was among the first to dedicate attention to journalism educators as individuals with influence in the journalistic field, arguing that journalism educators are “creators” who have played a critical role in the making of the “media mind”, thus having their own intellectual history and academic tradition. Drok
) surveyed European journalism educators, including four Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, n
= 136, 11% of the sample) and used partly the same questions used in the questionnaire of this study. Compared to the sample of the present study, the respondents from the Northern region, which also included Estonia, were slightly older in age, the average age being 50, and showed a higher percentage of PhD degrees (43% vs. 35% in this study). Drok’s report provides a detailed analysis of how gender, age, educational background and geographical location influence the views on different continents.
) previous study indicated a high level of consensus between journalism educators and students on the journalistic qualifications that journalists-to-be should possess to maintain the standards of quality journalism. Journalism educators have also been surveyed with an aim of forecasting the 21st century competencies; Poynter’s report identified 37 core skills by surveying professionals, educators and students about their views on future competences (Finberg and Klinger 2014
). In this report, both professionals and educators considered accuracy and curiosity to be the two most important qualifications of a future journalist. In many cases, national educational programs have been compared to each other as macro-level systems (Stigbrand and Nygren 2013
) or journalism educators have been studied instrumentally or with regard to a specific topic (see e.g., Mutsvairo and Bebawi 2019
) rather than as a specific group of respondents or an object of study in their own right.
In their crucial role, academic journalism educators work as brokers between the prevailing reality where journalism is produced (industry) and education (university), translating the essentials of journalism into the sphere of learning. As journalism degree programs are part of higher education, they also need to take the academic skills and knowledge requirements into account in this mediating or bridging task. Indeed, many journalism educators at the universities are hackademics
, professionals working as part of academia with a background in the journalism industry (Harcup 2011
). Practical experience, especially in courses where students are expected to learn journalistic production skills in environments where the work in authentic newsrooms is simulated (see e.g., Jaakkola 2017b
), is appreciated and often a precondition for understanding journalistic practice. It can be assumed that many journalism educators, at least at the more practical level, feel a strong affinity with the practitioners, and balancing between the “theoretical” and “practical” dimensions has, therefore, been one of the most frequent questions addressed when scrutinizing journalism education (see e.g., Jaakkola 2019
As teachers are more seldom to be found in expert registers or set up public profiles, unlike researchers, it is interesting to map the field of journalism education in the Nordic region, asking who journalism educators are, and how they think of journalism and its future development. In this study, we focus on the journalism educators’ relationship to journalism. It is a critical relationship, as journalism educators’ demarcations and understandings of the very definition of journalism are passed on to the future generation of professionals—even if journalism educators are not completely alone in this mission, as students also acquire a significant part of their knowledge through internships and socialization into work communities.
5. Data and Methodology
The data were collected with an online survey conducted in 2021 as part of a global survey for journalism educators. The Nordic countries Finland, Denmark (incl. Greenland), Iceland, Norway and Sweden were included in addition to 29 other countries. The sub-studies used the same questionnaire as the other countries, available in five languages, but the study was conducted separately; the journalism educators were invited to the study by the authors of this article in the Nordic languages, and the data were analyzed by the authors. The questionnaire used, set up with the survey tool CheckMarket, was in English, but the journalism educators were targeted in their own national languages, providing a national context for the study.
All the major journalism schools within higher education in the Nordic countries were selected (n
= 26), based on their membership in the Nordic Collaboration Committee of Journalism Education (NordJour 2020
) and European Journalism Training Association (EJTA 2020
. Using the staff directories on the institutional webpages, invitations to employees in journalism study programs (n
= 354) were sent on 7 January 2020. The questionnaire was available until 28 February. Reminders were sent at the end of January.
The share of females among the invitees, based on the institutions’ staff lists, was 43 per cent in Denmark, 55 per cent in Finland, 25 per cent in Iceland, 42 per cent in Norway and 64 per cent in Sweden. The questionnaire was created in a GDPR-compliant way by asking for the respondents’ active consent to participate in the study. In total, we received 115 responses by the deadline, which corresponded to an acceptable response rate of 32 per cent.
There were 31 respondents (27%) from Denmark (incl. Greenland), 30 respondents from Finland (26%), 29 respondents from Sweden (25%), 21 respondents from Norway (18%) and 4 respondents from Iceland (4%). The non-response rate varied from question to question between 0 and 13 per cent (n = 15), which was because all respondents who started answering the questions did not complete the questionnaire; in this study, all actual answers were taken into account, which meant the total number of replies varied. Among the respondents, 45 per cent (n = 52) were male, 39 per cent (n = 45) female and 3 per cent (n = 3) were non-binary or preferred not to answer. As for their education, 35 per cent of the respondents (n = 40) had a doctoral degree, while 37 per cent (n = 43) had a master’s and 11 per cent (n = 13) a bachelor’s degree.
Most respondents were middle aged and thus obviously mid-career educators; 2 respondents (2%) were 20–29 years of their age, 9 respondents (8%) were 30–39, 35 respondents (30%) 40–49 years, 32 respondents (28%) were 50–59 and 22 respondents (19%) were older than 60 years. Indeed, most of the respondents had a couple of years of practical experience from working as a journalist. Among the respondents, 29 per cent (n = 33) had 6–15 years of experience and one third were even more experienced, 23 per cent (n = 26) had 16–30 years of experience and 4 per cent (n = 5) more than 30 years.
The majority of respondents (n = 84, 73%) mainly taught journalism, while there were also respondents with a focus on other subjects within the media and communication sciences; 12 respondents (10%) mainly taught research methods, 10 respondents (9%) media and communication theory, 2 respondents (2%) languages and 7 respondents (6%) some other subjects. The majority of the respondents (92, 80%) were employed full time. Among the respondents, 7 respondents (6%) were working 60–80 percent and 16 respondents (14%) less than 60 percent part time.
The questions addressed the norms related to journalistic cultures and daily work as perceived by journalism educators who are in the position of mediating these norms to future journalists.
The norms dealt with both ideals and principles, reflected in general statements, and work practices manifest in descriptions of individual choices included in the news work. The questions were about the journalists’ position in society, the tasks that professional journalists conducted, professional ethics and ethical principles, future directions for the development of journalism and the future qualifications and competence areas of journalists. Many of the questions were future-oriented, covering a period of the next ten years. The questions were followed by a number of statements that the respondents were asked to assess on a 5-point Likert scale, 1 referring to the lowest and 5 to the highest score. Next, we will go through these questions in a respective manner.
The first question built upon the general conceptions of the professional roles of journalists, anchored in journalistic cultures. The statement was formulated as follows: “A journalist should…”, and it was intended to examine the epistemological grounds of the idealized position of journalists in society in terms of neutrality and objectivity. Respondents could choose an answer to the 12 statements shown in Table 1
on a 5-point Likert scale between strong disagreement and strong agreement.
The professional principles of realism, analysis, inclusiveness and detachment have been found to be canonical in journalism cultures around the world (Hanitzsch et al. 2019
). Nordic journalists have been found to embrace the detached watchdog observer role (Ahva et al. 2017
). Danish and Swedish journalists have been found to comply with monitorial ideals with a high adherence, while Finnish journalists differ from Danish and Swedish journalists with their more market-oriented style and Icelandic and Norwegian journalists are characterized by a greater distance from political influences and political roles (Hovden and Väliverronen 2021
) journalism educators survey, the Nordic region stood out in relation to other parts of the world in its views on how journalism should report about the positive developments in society (h). Even the statements on the transparency of working process (j) and monitoring and scrutinizing other media (l) were supported more highly in the Nordic region than elsewhere. These dimensions indicate that the Nordic journalism educators express affinity with the recent development of positive news or journalism (see e.g., Leung and Lee 2015
) and solutions journalism (see e.g., McIntyre 2019
), as a counteraction to the overdramatization, sensation-seeking mindset and the crisis and negativity bias in coverage. They also emphasize the accountability of media, in terms of highlighting the importance of work process transparency and the critical investigation of the media, which refers to a strong ethical commitment which is supported by further findings in this study.
The second question dealt with the relative importance of a number of functions that professional journalists should perform. The statement read as follows: “Compared to today, in the next ten years the importance of the following task for professional journalists should become…”, and the respondents were asked to choose an answer according to whether they assessed that the need for the competence would be much lower, lower, the same as now or much higher. The results are shown in Table 2
The answers underline the need for combatting the challenges of a post-truth society: the verification of facts (b), supporting the disadvantaged and vulnerable groups of people (d) and the journalist’s traditional watchdog role in reacting to societal shortcomings (f, i, o). The need to construct meaning and relevance for citizens (h, l, n) in an increasingly complex and turbulent mediated landscape is experienced as something that has to be strengthened in the coming years. The journalists’ role as gatekeepers and meaning-makers of public knowledge to support informed citizenship is thus something that journalism educators will continue to emphasize. In their critical relationship to societal elites and knowledge, an approach that seems to be especially supported by the Nordic educators is the journalists’ ability to point people toward possible solutions for societal problems (r). Here, the gradual impact of constructive solutions or slow journalism (Haagerup 2017
; Holmaas 2019
; May 2020
; Hautakangas et al. 2017
), which has gained ground in the Nordic countries during the recent decade, can be seen in the educators’ attitudes. These views dovetail with the viability category of normativity, but they also reflect the distinctly Nordic type of journalism as seen in the ideological and performance categories.
Nordic journalism educators are also set to contest time pressure (a, g, m) and consumerism (q, e, k). A majority of respondents (79%) thought that journalists should not deliver information to their public any quicker than now (a), and a large majority (88%) also pointed out that the trend to increase the quantity of stories that an individual journalist creates should be opposed (g). According to 91 per cent of respondents, the pace of bringing on the latest news should not increase. With a majority of 89 per cent, journalism educators clearly agreed upon the statement that journalists should not focus on making more saleable content, and 92 per cent asserted that the people should not be primarily treated as consumers or customers. Decreasing the pace of journalistic production may, however, be slightly contradictory, as the journalism educators at the same time emphasized the need to deliver information to the public rapidly, with 21 per cent even saying that journalists should be quicker in the future than today. Opposing the managerial and advertorial approach “of the marketing department”—that is, of them
rather than ours—is nothing radical with regard to the professionalism that essentially builds upon building journalistic integrity within news organizations by detaching journalists from marketers, but, as seen in recent studies from newsrooms (Waldenström et al. 2019
), the negotiations between journalistic and managerial, or “democratic” and “economic” issues, is often more subtle. As journalism educators are following the industry, they are likely to adopt approaches from the field, but at the same time they have sufficient distance to oppose such developments.
In the third question, the focus was directed to the professional ethics in the context of major societal issues. The instruction text said: “Consider an assignment about an important economic topic given to a journalist. We would like to know whether or not you find that certain practices are acceptable”. The answers can be seen in Table 3
It is often easy to assert that ethical principles are rules that pinpoint the integrity and fairness of journalistic conduct. In Poynter’s report (Finberg and Klinger 2014
), educators were more likely to prioritize ethical principles as core skills than the professionals. Some of the typical ethical guidelines were also very obvious: almost all the educators confirmed that journalism needs to be trustworthy, transparent and accountable and should not, for example, agree to protect confidentiality but not do so (i), use re-creations or dramatizations of news by actors without mentioning it (j), publish a story with unverified content (k), accept money from sources (l) or alter quotes (n) or photographs (m) substantially. Delivering such fundamentals to future journalists is also part of the core function of journalism educators who in many respects are the guardians and safeguards of the very essence of journalism. In other words, if journalism educators do not succeed in mediating the basic ethical principles to their students, the definition of journalism will be lost, as implied in the ideological category of normativity. As journalism is a professional ideology that subscribes to being ethical and, in this way, worthy of people’s trust, newcomers in the field who do not follow the cornerstones of professionalism can easily be dismissed.
Nordic journalism educators seem to be relatively united in that confidential sources should not be revealed (a) and the sourcing work of journalism should operate on trust and commitment instead of money (d). The answers also indicate that covert action, such as the use of the Wallraff method and hidden equipment (b, c, e) is accepted under certain conditions. Over the half of respondents (60%) accepted that a journalist can claim to be someone else when collecting information, and 81 per cent saw no hindrances for using hidden microphones and cameras for journalistic purposes. Even 77 per cent regarded the method of becoming employed in an organization to gain insider information as an acceptable approach. However, at a general level, the opinions were more dispersed, with 54 per cent agreeing that the end justifies the means (p) and 40 per cent disagreeing upon “revealing the truth, no matter the consequences”.
When it comes to more grey-zone methods, such as whistleblowing and news leaks, 73 per cent disagreed and 16 per cent remained neutral in the question of using confidential government documents without permission (f). Indeed, Nordic journalists have been involved in the multi-national journalistic work of the recent global leaks of Pandora papers (2021), Paradise papers (2017) and Panama papers (2016), and the activities of the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists (ICIJ) have been followed at the institutions as international examples of contemporary investigative reporting. In contrast, exerting pressure on unwilling informants to obtain a story (h) is experienced as an insult of individual integrity in a democratic society.
The fourth question connected to the discussions that have been influential in journalism education, as well, namely how and in which ways journalism should be adjusted or re-defined because of the economic, technological and societal changes of the 21st century. The 10 statements, listed in Table 4
, concerned the direction in which journalism could evolve, and respondents were asked to indicate to what extent they agreed with the statements. The introductory phrase read as follows: “In my view, it would be good if journalism was...”.
According to the Nordic journalism educators, journalism should take its democratic responsibility seriously by advancing the traditional virtues of journalism, such as social responsibility and justice, by providing relevant and meaningful information. Relevance seems to be a key feature, as advocating an interpretative approach to the social reality is highlighted in multiple ways (b, d, f, h). An explicit majority of the educators (82%) regarded the attention dedicated to ordinary people as more important than focusing on elites (b). This may be interpreted in terms of examining ordinary people’s perspectives and standing up for the disadvantaged (as statement d in Table 2
) instead of following the agendas of the centers of power. Advancing solution journalism approaches, which was supported even here by a majority of 85 per cent (d), does not necessarily mean that failures should be hidden. This can be seen in the types of answers that showed that some (18% preferring reporting on failures and 55% remaining neutral in this issue) seemed to regard the addressing of failures as important, contesting the coverage of mere successes (i), but many (80%) tended to think that journalism should be more success- than failure-oriented. This may be read as a call that, again, dovetails with the constructive- and solution journalism approaches, which are also likely to lean more on the future than historical aspects, reflected in the conscious preferences for the question “what’s next” (f) by 37 per cent of the respondents.
The fifth question focused on the educators’ views on the qualifications that young and aspiring journalists should acquire or possess. “Qualifications” were in this context understood as a mixture of abilities, attitudes and commitments. The introduction was: “Compared to today, in the next ten years the importance of the following qualifications for professional journalists should become…” Table 5
largely confirms the findings from the answers to the previous questions, such as the appreciation of the “welfare-state of mind” of the Nordic journalist with a strong democratic commitment and social responsibility (a, q, r), interpretative approach (b, c, d, g, i, m), strong emphasis on the reliability of information through fact validation (j, l) and the skepticism towards time pressure (e).
Furthermore, journalism educators seemed to contend that developing and diversifying presentation methods in journalism (n, o, p, t, u, v) is of high importance. Future journalists should be able to employ a variety of storytelling techniques (n) using technology (o) in multimodal or transmedia settings (p) and develop new products and formats in an increasing manner (t)—the majority of educators highlighted the increased importance of this. At the same time, educators seemed to have a more ambivalent relationship to social engagement (f, k). The educators seemed to have different opinions regarding whether the importance of organizing contributions to and interacting with the public should increase or remain the same. The diversification of presentation methods is, however, connected to the ideological category of normativity in ensuring a diversity of ways of addressing audiences, and to the normative category of viability, as diverse presentation methods may contribute to keeping audiences interested and attract new audiences in journalism.
From qualifications, the attention was directed to the employability and future labor market of journalism students. Question six examined the educators’ forecasts about the future outlook on the roles in which their students are likely to do their job in a changing media landscape. The question was formulated as follows: “To what extent do you agree that your current students will be working in the following positions within the next 10 years?” Table 6
describes the results, which were quite concordant.
With regard to the discussions of the decline of the conventional job market, Nordic journalism educators seemed to support the idea of working with established news organizations (a); over the half of the respondents (55%) agreed that future journalists would remain as staff workers. At the same time, increased freelancing was anticipated, as 82 per cent agreed or strongly agreed—as we interpreted the answers—that the contracted jobs would be freelancing positions (b). There was, nevertheless, a strong impression that an increasing number of students would be employed beyond the established news organizations (c, d, e) and their journalism (d, f, g). The overall picture that was painted thus conformed to the recent discussions of journalism that is increasingly produced beyond the established structures (Deuze and Witschge 2020
) even in the Nordic countries. However, ideas regarding whether journalists would be sharing their time between journalism and something else or completely leaving journalism for PR or communication appeared to be more dispersed. If the ideological category of normativity journalism is still seen to be leaning upon non-commercial values, the idea of journalists seeking PR and communication can be seen as a resignation from the journalism educators’ perspective.
In the last question, the respondents were asked to complement the statement “[i]n the next ten years, for journalism teachers the importance of the following qualifications should become” with their assessment. As seen in Table 7
, over the half of the respondents thought that the nine mentioned competence areas would remain the same or grow only a little in their importance.
Not surprisingly, as the journalistic professionalism largely leans upon the idea of being a “craft” and, accordingly, journalism education can be localized between theory and practice, journalism educators (97%) thought that practical experience (a) was important now and its importance will even increase in the future. Skills that were expected to increase in their importance were, above all, didactic–pedagogical knowledge (d), technical skills for digital media (i), specialized knowledge (f) and research skills (g). The importance allotted to didactic–pedagogical knowledge may refer to skills that are needed to conceptualize and clarify complex societal processes in conditions where trans-media and multi-platform storytelling dissolve the one-story model, urging journalists to think how to present ideas in different channels in an understandable manner, creating more audience engagement. However, the views regarding whether the university degree one acquires as a result of an academic learning process should be from journalism studies (b) or another field (c) did not notably differ from one another. While a little over a half of the respondents (53%) claimed that the demand for extensive general knowledge (e) will remain the same, 54 per cent were convinced of a strengthened call for specialized knowledge (f). Journalism educators thus seemed to envision the field of journalism as an increasingly heterogeneous and technologically saturated occupational area where more specialization and related tools will be needed. No notable increase in importance was seen for linguistic skills (h).
The present questionnaire departed from the assumption that journalism educators, being involved in the development in journalism for their educative function in the journalism ecology, are experts of journalism and the expressions of their views regarding the future development of journalistic profession are relevant. The normativity sustained by journalism educators can be organized into the three categories of ideological, performance and viable normativity as shown in Table 8
. We can identify three major topics, of which the first one describes the state of art, the second one a recent trend and the third a future change, and which we call the watchdog role, the constructive—or what we call mediary in order to detach it from any specific framework—approach and the diversity of content. They are described in terms of the found traits of normativity in the ideological, performance and viability categories.
The watchdog role comes into being in terms of the maintenance of ethical values sustaining democracy, which is the basic Western understanding of journalism. The constructive approach is connected to ideas of slow, investigative, constructive and solutions-based journalism and has largely been endorsed by the Nordic journalism educators. Creating meaning, interpretation and relevance, producing in-depth accounts and providing solutions are highly appreciated qualities of journalism and a high priority is set for them within the education sector. This approach, known, above all, under the umbrella terms of “constructive journalism” (Swedish konstruktiv journalistik
; see e.g., Holmberg 2020
) “solutions journalism” (Danish/Norwegian lø[y]sningsjournalistikk
) or “conciliatory journalism” (Finnish sovittelujournalismi
; see e.g., Jaakkola 2017a
) in the Nordics has recently been advocated as an alternative to the sustainable future by many Nordic professional practitioners and journalism trainers, but has also been strengthened by the establishment of national structures such as the Constructive Institute in Denmark and inter-Nordic networks, as well as national research projects (see e.g., Ahva and Hautakangas 2018
It can be argued that the hermeneutic, reflective and critical approach, which we can subsume into the category of mediary journalism to include all its national variants, not only fits well into the Nordic legacy of journalism (the watchdog role) and democracy (welfare state), but also neatly dovetails with the objectives of journalism education itself and with the sustainability of journalism. Pedagogically, the ideas of bridging polarized views, negotiating with conflicting sources of information, seeking solutions instead of highlighting conflicts or digging into background instead of merely mirroring current events allow learners and teachers to see the critical role of journalists in society in a clear way, re-arranging the constituents of news making into a didactic approach. As journalism educators tended to express that their aim was not merely to follow the industry but, more importantly, to sustain a critical and developing attitude towards the existing structures and patterns of the “field”, the investigative, critical ingredients of mediary journalism within journalism studies and journalistic practice are likely to provide journalism educators with tools to provide this essential perspective that, besides, distinguishes academic journalism education, first, from the more vocational training with immediate employability aims and, second, from the industry. In academic journalism education, the discussion on searching for ways to integrate the theoretical ingredients of the curriculum with the more practical substance that the professional learning requires has been prevalent. The mediary journalism approaches offer journalism educators tools for strategies to move their journalism education programs closer to other disciplines within the academy.
When discussing norms, there is always the notable risk of a “good respondent bias”, as the respondents typically answer according to what they feel is expected from them, instead of exposing their actual patterns of behavior. Moreover, it is relatively easy to agree upon general professional principles, while the adjustability and flexibility of these professional principles are more efficiently tested in dilemmatic cases in practice. Responding to questions that contradict the general professional ethos may cause uneasiness and discomfort in respondents, regardless of how they would act in a real situation. As always (see e.g., Summers and Hammonds 1969
), the potential bias needs to be taken into account in this study; however, in the case of journalism educators, who are primarily involved in the formation of this normative discourse at their institutions rather than making the practical decisions in newsrooms, the norms maintained by the educators play a particularly important role. Nevertheless, what the questionnaire did not examine were the pedagogies how the views expressed are applied and put into practice. Therefore, and not least because of the aforementioned good respondent bias, it would be an equally relevant question to examine how journalism educators translate these norms and principles into action in their classroom and newsroom education.
The data collection phase of our study unveiled information on the structures of journalism education by indicating that there are about 350 academic employees working as journalism educators in the Nordic countries, excluding hourly-based guest lecturers who are regularly involved in journalism education. In comparison, there were about 750 registered Nordic media researchers in the Nordic expert database run by the research center Nordicom in July 2022 (NMN 2022
). While in Denmark and Norway under a half of the staff were female, in Finland the gender share was more equal and Sweden had the most female-dominated staff structure. However, Drok
) survey, which examined the replies to the same questions used here according to gender categories, indicated that differences in journalism educators’ epistemological and ontological positionings in general were very small in terms of gender.
The constructive approach can be said to link to the Nordic legacy of a welfare state with social responsibility and criticality as pivotal virtues of journalism, in contrast to the entrepreneurial and innovation-driven approaches that have been much more prevalent, for example, in the American discussions on journalism education (see e.g., Mensing and Ryfe 2013
). However, to conclude, even in the Nordic countries the discourse revolving around contemporary and future journalism education has largely been characterized by efforts to discover solutions through journalism education for journalism to survive in an age of uncertainty and crisis (see also Ring Olsen 2020
). It can be suggested that even here, the mediary approaches to journalism that are seen in the survey results have turned out to be the most “Nordic-minded” way to go.