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Numerical Study of Junction Fires on Sloped Terrain for Grassland Vegetation †

Le Laboratoire Sciences Pour l’Environnement (UMR CNRS SPE 6134), Université de Corse, 20250 Corte, France
Scientific Research Center in Engineering, Lebanese University, Museum, Beirut 1106, Lebanon
School of Science, University of New South Wales, Canberra, ACT 2610, Australia
IMATH Laboratory, EA 2134, Toulon University, 83160 Toulon, France
M2P2, Centrale Marseille, CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, 13451 Marseille, France
Institute for Sustainable Industries and Liveable Cities, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC 8001, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Presented at the Third International Conference on Fire Behavior and Risk, Sardinia, Italy, 3–6 May 2022.
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 17(1), 112;
Published: 30 August 2022
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The Third International Conference on Fire Behavior and Risk)
Junction fires involve the merging of two linear fire fronts intersecting at a small angle which gives rise to an interaction process with fire-induced convective flows that modify the behavior of both fires and produce very large values of the rate of spread (ROS) of the inner part of the two fires.
In this context, a study on the junction fires on sloped terrain was carried out numerically using the FIRESTAR3D model that predicts the fire behavior. FireStar3D belongs to a multiphase class of models that is based on a very detailed modelling of the physicochemical phenomena involved in a fire, from the thermal degradation of the vegetation to the development of the turbulent flame inside and above the vegetation layer. This approach solves two sets of problems, one for the vegetation and one for the surrounding gas which are coupled together through additional terms. The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of the junction angle variation on the fire behavior, especially on the junction point velocity. In a first step, the effect of terrain slope on the fire rate of spread was simulated numerically under no wind conditions, in order to determine the slope threshold value beyond which fire behavior changes noticeably due to flame attachment. Then numerical simulations of junction fires were conducted using two different values of terrain slope (above and below the threshold value) in order to establish the relationship between the fire rate of spread and the junction angle variation. Finally, numerical simulations were conducted to study the case where the junction axis is not aligned with the main slope direction, in order to investigate the effect of this rotation on the junction point speed and trajectory.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, G.A., K.M. and D.S.; methodology, G.A.; software, G.A. and J.F.; validation, G.A., N.F. and S.M.; formal analysis, G.A.; investigation, J.F.; resources, G.A.; data curation, J.F.; writing—original draft preparation, J.F.; writing—review and editing, G.A., D.M., F.J.C. and J.-L.R.; visualization, G.A.; supervision, G.A.; project administration, G.A.; funding acquisition, G.A. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


This research received no external funding.

Institutional Review Board Statement

Not applicable.

Informed Consent Statement

Not applicable.

Data Availability Statement

Not applicable.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fayad, J.; Accary, G.; Sutherland, D.; Meradji, S.; Frangieh, N.; Moinuddin, K.; Morvan, D.; Chatelon, F.J.; Rossi, J.-L. Numerical Study of Junction Fires on Sloped Terrain for Grassland Vegetation. Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 17, 112.

AMA Style

Fayad J, Accary G, Sutherland D, Meradji S, Frangieh N, Moinuddin K, Morvan D, Chatelon FJ, Rossi J-L. Numerical Study of Junction Fires on Sloped Terrain for Grassland Vegetation. Environmental Sciences Proceedings. 2022; 17(1):112.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fayad, Jacky, Gilbert Accary, Duncan Sutherland, Sofiane Meradji, Nicolas Frangieh, Khaled Moinuddin, Dominique Morvan, François Joseph Chatelon, and Jean-Louis Rossi. 2022. "Numerical Study of Junction Fires on Sloped Terrain for Grassland Vegetation" Environmental Sciences Proceedings 17, no. 1: 112.

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