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Spatial Structure, Biodiversity Indicators and Carbon Stocks of the Old-Growth Natural Forests in the Protected Areas of the Ukrainian Carpathians^{ †}

^{1}

^{2}

^{*}

^{†}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. Study Location

#### 2.2. Use of Remote Sensing Data

#### 2.3. Estimation of Forest Parameters

^{2}. The centers of the sample plots were determined using a GPS receiver. The vertical structure of the stands (the structure of tree layers or the vertical horizons) represents a percentage of occupation of each layer by vegetation. Horizontal structure was estimated using three indicators: diversity of tree positions (positioning), value diversity (variability of the indicator) and tree species diversity (composition). The diversity of the species was estimated using the Shannon index and tree differentiation index (T). The formulas of the species diversity are presented in Table 1.

## 3. Results and Discussion

#### 3.1. Diameter and Height Distributions

#### 3.2. Vertical Structure

#### 3.3. Horizontal Structure

#### 3.4. Phytomass

## 4. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**Location of the National Natural Park “Skole Beskids” and Nature Reserve “Gorgany” where the sample plots were established.

**Figure 2.**Differentiation of trees by groups of diameters: (

**a**) Nature Reserve “Gorgany”; (

**b**) National Natural Park “Skole Beskids”.

**Figure 3.**Distribution of the growing stock by the stand layers and tree species: (

**a**) Nature Reserve “Gorgany”; (

**b**) National Nature Park “Skole Beskids”.

Index | Formula | Significance |
---|---|---|

Shannon index, E_{H} | ${H}^{\prime}=-{{\displaystyle \sum}}_{j=1}^{n}\frac{{n}_{i}}{N}\mathrm{ln}\left(\frac{{n}_{i}}{N}\right)$, ${E}_{H}=\frac{H}{{H}_{max}}$, ${M}_{i}=\frac{1}{n}{\displaystyle {\displaystyle \sum}_{j=1}^{n}}{m}_{ji}$ | E_{H} = 0.00—absent; 0.25—low; 0.50—middle; 0.75—high; 1.00—very high |

Tree differentiation index, T_{i} | ${T}_{i}=\frac{1}{n}{{\displaystyle \sum}}_{j=1}^{n}{t}_{ji}$, ${T}_{i}=\frac{\sigma}{X}$ | T_{i} = 0.05—very low; 0.06–0.15—low; 0.15–0.30—middle; 0.31–0.60—high; more than 0.61—very high |

Index | Formula | Significance |
---|---|---|

Clark-Evans, R | $R=\frac{{r}_{A}}{{r}_{E}}=\frac{\frac{1}{N}{{\displaystyle \sum}}_{1}^{N}{r}_{i}}{0.5\cdot \sqrt{\frac{S}{N}}}$ | if R < 1—the disposition is group; R > 1—uniform disposition, R = 1—random disposition |

Donelli, R_{D} | $R=\frac{\frac{1}{N}{{\displaystyle \sum}}_{1}^{N}{r}_{i}}{0.5\cdot \sqrt{\frac{S}{N}+}0.0514\cdot \frac{P}{N}+0.041\frac{P}{\sqrt{{N}^{3}}}}$ | if R < 1—the disposition is group; R > 1—uniform disposition; R = 1—random disposition |

Angle index of Gadow, W | ${W}_{i}=\frac{1}{n}{\displaystyle {\displaystyle \sum}_{j=1}^{n}}{v}_{ji}$ | W_{i} = 0.00—strictly uniform; 0.25—uniform disposition; 0.50—group disposition; 1.00—random disposition |

Name | Average dr, cm | Variation Indexes | Skewness, A | Kurtosis, E | Mode, Mo | Median, Me | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Minimal Value | Maximal Value | Variability, σ^{2} | Standard Deviation, σ | Coefficient of Variation, V | ||||||

by diameter | ||||||||||

NR “Gorgany” | 22.3 | 6.0 | 104.4 | 186.4 | 13.7 | 61.2 | 1.42 | 2.93 | 9.2 | 19.6 |

NNP “Skole Beskids” | 30.0 | 6.0 | 105.0 | 354.8 | 18.9 | 62.8 | 0.77 | −0.08 | 9.3 | 26.5 |

by height | ||||||||||

NR “Gorgany” | 10.8 | 4.3 | 39.2 | 18.5 | 4.3 | 40.0 | 0.42 | −0.69 | 9.3 | 10.2 |

NNP “Skole Beskids” | 19.0 | 4.2 | 41.8 | 102.2 | 10.1 | 53.2 | 0.22 | −1.1 | 9.9 | 18.0 |

Name | Indexes of Horizontal Structure | Indexes of Species Diversity and Differentiation | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Clark-Evans, R | Donelli, R_{D} | Angle Index of Gadow, W | Shannon Index, E_{H} | Tree Differentiation Index, T_{i} | ||

Diameter | Height | |||||

NR “Gorgany” | 1.06 | 1.05 | 0.87 | 0.44 | 0.61 | 0.40 |

NNP “Skole Beskids” | 1.07 | 0.98 | 0.78 | 0.63 | 0.63 | 0.53 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Korol, M.; Havryliuk, S.; Tokar, O.; Gusti, M. Spatial Structure, Biodiversity Indicators and Carbon Stocks of the Old-Growth Natural Forests in the Protected Areas of the Ukrainian Carpathians. *Environ. Sci. Proc.* **2022**, *13*, 27.
https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2021-10803

**AMA Style**

Korol M, Havryliuk S, Tokar O, Gusti M. Spatial Structure, Biodiversity Indicators and Carbon Stocks of the Old-Growth Natural Forests in the Protected Areas of the Ukrainian Carpathians. *Environmental Sciences Proceedings*. 2022; 13(1):27.
https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2021-10803

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Korol, Mykola, Serhii Havryliuk, Olha Tokar, and Mykola Gusti. 2022. "Spatial Structure, Biodiversity Indicators and Carbon Stocks of the Old-Growth Natural Forests in the Protected Areas of the Ukrainian Carpathians" *Environmental Sciences Proceedings* 13, no. 1: 27.
https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2021-10803