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Effects of Acute Muscle Contraction on the Key Molecules in Insulin and Akt Signaling in Skeletal Muscle in Health and in Insulin Resistant States

School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3, Canada
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Academic Editor: Peter Clifton
Diabetology 2022, 3(3), 423-446; https://doi.org/10.3390/diabetology3030032
Received: 5 April 2022 / Revised: 17 June 2022 / Accepted: 30 June 2022 / Published: 28 July 2022
Insulin signaling plays a key role in glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis, and protein and lipid synthesis. In insulin-resistant states like obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, these processes are dysregulated. Regular physical exercise is a potential therapeutic strategy against insulin resistance, as an acute bout of exercise increases glucose disposal during the activity and for hours into recovery. Chronic exercise increases the activation of proteins involved in insulin signaling and increases glucose transport, even in insulin resistant states. Here, we will focus on the effect of acute exercise on insulin signaling and protein kinase B (Akt) pathways. Activation of proximal proteins involved in insulin signaling (insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphoinoside-3 kinase (PI3K)) are unchanged in response to acute exercise/contraction, while activation of Akt and of its substrates, TBC1 domain family 1 (TBC1D1), and TBC domain family 4 (TBC1D4) increases in response to such exercise/contraction. A wide array of Akt substrates is also regulated by exercise. Additionally, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) seems to be a main mediator of the benefits of exercise on skeletal muscle. Questions persist on how mTORC1 and AMPK, two opposing regulators, are both upregulated after an acute bout of exercise. View Full-Text
Keywords: insulin signaling; AKT; acute exercise; insulin resistance; glucose uptake insulin signaling; AKT; acute exercise; insulin resistance; glucose uptake
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mann, G.; Riddell, M.C.; Adegoke, O.A.J. Effects of Acute Muscle Contraction on the Key Molecules in Insulin and Akt Signaling in Skeletal Muscle in Health and in Insulin Resistant States. Diabetology 2022, 3, 423-446. https://doi.org/10.3390/diabetology3030032

AMA Style

Mann G, Riddell MC, Adegoke OAJ. Effects of Acute Muscle Contraction on the Key Molecules in Insulin and Akt Signaling in Skeletal Muscle in Health and in Insulin Resistant States. Diabetology. 2022; 3(3):423-446. https://doi.org/10.3390/diabetology3030032

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mann, Gagandeep, Michael C. Riddell, and Olasunkanmi A. J. Adegoke. 2022. "Effects of Acute Muscle Contraction on the Key Molecules in Insulin and Akt Signaling in Skeletal Muscle in Health and in Insulin Resistant States" Diabetology 3, no. 3: 423-446. https://doi.org/10.3390/diabetology3030032

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