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Review

Ion-Channel Antiepileptic Drugs: An Analytical Perspective on the Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) of Ezogabine, Lacosamide, and Zonisamide

1
Department for Life Quality Studies (QuVi), Alma Mater Studiorum—University of Bologna, Corso d’Augusto 237, 47921 Rimini, Italy
2
Research Group of Pharmaco-Toxicological Analysis (PTA Lab), Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology (FaBiT), Alma Mater Studiorum—University of Bologna, Via Belmeloro 6, 40126 Bologna, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marcello Locatelli
Analytica 2021, 2(4), 171-194; https://doi.org/10.3390/analytica2040016
Received: 8 August 2021 / Revised: 24 November 2021 / Accepted: 27 November 2021 / Published: 30 November 2021
The term seizures includes a wide array of different disorders with variable etiology, which currently represent one of the most important classes of neurological illnesses. As a consequence, many different antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are currently available, exploiting different activity mechanisms and providing different levels of performance in terms of selectivity, safety, and efficacy. AEDs are currently among the psychoactive drugs most frequently involved in therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) practices. Thus, the plasma levels of AEDs and their metabolites are monitored and correlated to administered doses, therapeutic efficacy, side effects, and toxic effects. As for any analytical endeavour, the quality of plasma concentration data is only as good as the analytical method allows. In this review, the main techniques and methods are described, suitable for the TDM of three AEDs belonging to the class of ion channel agents: ezogabine (or retigabine), lacosamide, and zonisamide. In addition to this analytical overview, data are provided, pertaining to two of the most important use cases for the TDM of antiepileptics: drug–drug interactions and neuroprotection activity studies. This review contains 146 references. View Full-Text
Keywords: drug–drug interactions (DDI); ezogabine; lacosamide; neuroprotection; retigabine; therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM); zonisamide drug–drug interactions (DDI); ezogabine; lacosamide; neuroprotection; retigabine; therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM); zonisamide
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mandrioli, R.; Protti, M.; Marincich, L.; Mercolini, L. Ion-Channel Antiepileptic Drugs: An Analytical Perspective on the Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) of Ezogabine, Lacosamide, and Zonisamide. Analytica 2021, 2, 171-194. https://doi.org/10.3390/analytica2040016

AMA Style

Mandrioli R, Protti M, Marincich L, Mercolini L. Ion-Channel Antiepileptic Drugs: An Analytical Perspective on the Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) of Ezogabine, Lacosamide, and Zonisamide. Analytica. 2021; 2(4):171-194. https://doi.org/10.3390/analytica2040016

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mandrioli, Roberto, Michele Protti, Lorenzo Marincich, and Laura Mercolini. 2021. "Ion-Channel Antiepileptic Drugs: An Analytical Perspective on the Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) of Ezogabine, Lacosamide, and Zonisamide" Analytica 2, no. 4: 171-194. https://doi.org/10.3390/analytica2040016

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