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Thyroid, Adrenal, PRL Impairments and Ovarian Function

Neuroendocrine Changes during Menopausal Transition

Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antonio Brunetti
Endocrines 2021, 2(4), 405-416;
Received: 13 July 2021 / Revised: 28 September 2021 / Accepted: 8 October 2021 / Published: 14 October 2021
Menopause is the permanent cessation of menstrual cycles following the loss of ovarian follicular activity. Quality of life of postmenopausal woman is the result of a series of psychobiological transformations, that see in the reduction of sex hormones and steroids the etiopathogenetic determinant moment. Symptoms of menopause range from somatic side such as metabolic changes, increased cardiovascular disease, irregular vaginal bleeding, urogenital symptoms, vaginal dryness, osteoporosis and risk of bones fractures to changes of central nervous system as vasomotor symptoms, sleep disruption, mood changes, migraine, sexual dysfunctions. It is fundamental to know the mechanisms underlying changes in the central nervous system during menopause, related to hypoestrogenism, to be able to create appropriate target therapy for patients, improving their quality of life. In fact, the central nervous system is now one of the major targets of sex steroids that cannot be achieved disregard when dealing with the problem of choice of a particular type of MHT. View Full-Text
Keywords: neuroendocrine changes; menopause; symptoms; central nervous system; quality of life neuroendocrine changes; menopause; symptoms; central nervous system; quality of life
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MDPI and ACS Style

Giannini, A.; Caretto, M.; Genazzani, A.R.; Simoncini, T. Neuroendocrine Changes during Menopausal Transition. Endocrines 2021, 2, 405-416.

AMA Style

Giannini A, Caretto M, Genazzani AR, Simoncini T. Neuroendocrine Changes during Menopausal Transition. Endocrines. 2021; 2(4):405-416.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Giannini, Andrea, Marta Caretto, Andrea R. Genazzani, and Tommaso Simoncini. 2021. "Neuroendocrine Changes during Menopausal Transition" Endocrines 2, no. 4: 405-416.

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