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Meditation Experience and Mindfulness Are Associated with Reduced Self-Reported Mind-Wandering in Meditators—A German Version of the Daydreaming Frequency Scale

1
Institute for Frontier Areas of Psychology and Mental Health, 79098 Freiburg, Germany
2
Catholic University of Applied Sciences, 79104 Freiburg, Germany
3
Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Medical Faculty, Medical Center, University of Freiburg, 79104 Freiburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Psych 2019, 1(1), 193-206; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych1010014
Received: 27 March 2019 / Revised: 3 May 2019 / Accepted: 6 May 2019 / Published: 9 May 2019
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Abstract

Mind-wandering or daydreaming can be described as spontaneous thoughts that are independent of the task at hand and the current sensory information. Mindfulness, defined as the ability to focus on the present moment with an accepting attitude towards the present experience, is considered to be the opposite of mind-wandering. We aimed at assessing how long-term meditation practice influences mind-wandering in everyday life and to which extent mind-wandering and self-reported aspects of mindfulness are conceptually linked. We first investigated the factorial structure of a German version of the Daydreaming Frequency Scale (DDFS) in a student population. Then we applied this version in meditators to a) investigate the relationship between meditation experience and reported levels of mind-wandering in daily life and b) explore how different facets of mindfulness, assessed with the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI), relate to mind-wandering. Using a correlational design, we show that, among meditators, more meditation practice in years accounts for less self-reported mind-wandering in daily life. There was a negative association between mindfulness (FMI) and mind-wandering (DDFS). Our results provide evidence for clarifying the relationship between, meditation experience, mindfulness and mind-wandering and further validate the use of the FMI as a sensitive tool for assessing a two-factor structure of mindfulness. View Full-Text
Keywords: daydreaming; mind-wandering; mindfulness; meditation; parallel analysis; confirmatory analysis daydreaming; mind-wandering; mindfulness; meditation; parallel analysis; confirmatory analysis
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Linares Gutiérrez, D.; Pfeifer, E.; Schmidt, S.; Wittmann, M. Meditation Experience and Mindfulness Are Associated with Reduced Self-Reported Mind-Wandering in Meditators—A German Version of the Daydreaming Frequency Scale. Psych 2019, 1, 193-206.

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