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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Design of Shrewd Underwater Routing Synergy Using Porous Energy Shells

1
College of Internet of Things Engineering, Hohai University, Changzhou 213022, China
2
Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong Universitnity, Shanghai, China
3
College of Computer Science, Neijiang Normal University, Neijiang, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Smart Cities 2020, 3(1), 74-92; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3010005
Received: 26 January 2020 / Revised: 23 February 2020 / Accepted: 24 February 2020 / Published: 26 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Smart Sensors)
During the course of ubiquitous data monitoring in the underwater environment, achieving sustainable communication links among the sensor nodes with astute link quality seems an ordeal challenge. Energy utilization has a direct impact because all active devices are battery dependent and no charging or replacement actions can be made when cost- effective data packet delivery has been set as the benchmark. Hop link inspection and the selection of a Shrewd link through a resurrecting link factor have been nothing short of a bleak challenge, and only possible after meticulous research to develop a shrewd underwater routing synergy using extra porous energy shells (SURS-PES) which has never been conducted before. After broadcasting packets, the sensor node conducts a link inspection phase, thereby, if any link is found to be less than or equal to 50% shaky, the destination receiving node adds its residual energy status and returns it to the source node which adds some unusable energy porous shell to strengthen the link from 5% to a maximum of 90% and sends it only to the targeted node, therefore, an unaltered data packet delivery is anticipated. Performance evaluation was carried out using an NS2 simulator and the obtained results were compared with depth-based routing (DBR) and energy efficient DBR (EEDBR) to observe the outcomes with results that confirmed the previously mentioned direction for research in this area. View Full-Text
Keywords: underwater wireless sensor networks; shaky links; Ramshackle; resurrect link factor; end-to-end delay; network performance underwater wireless sensor networks; shaky links; Ramshackle; resurrect link factor; end-to-end delay; network performance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ashraf, S.; Ahmed, T.; Raza, A.; Naeem, H. Design of Shrewd Underwater Routing Synergy Using Porous Energy Shells. Smart Cities 2020, 3, 74-92. https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3010005

AMA Style

Ashraf S, Ahmed T, Raza A, Naeem H. Design of Shrewd Underwater Routing Synergy Using Porous Energy Shells. Smart Cities. 2020; 3(1):74-92. https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3010005

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ashraf, Shahzad; Ahmed, Tauqeer; Raza, Asif; Naeem, Hamad. 2020. "Design of Shrewd Underwater Routing Synergy Using Porous Energy Shells" Smart Cities 3, no. 1: 74-92. https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3010005

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