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Mismatch Repair System Genomic Scars in Gastroesophageal Cancers: Biology and Clinical Testing

by 1,2,†, 1,3,4,†, 1,† and 1,3,*
1
Division of Pathology, IEO, European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, University of Milan, Via Giuseppe Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan, Italy
2
School of Pathology, University of Milan, 20122 Milan, Italy
3
Department of Oncology and Hemato-Oncology, University of Milan, 20122 Milan, Italy
4
Ph.D. Program in Translational Medicine, University of Milan, 20133 Milan, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this article.
Gastrointest. Disord. 2020, 2(4), 341-352; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord2040031
Received: 5 August 2020 / Revised: 21 September 2020 / Accepted: 23 September 2020 / Published: 28 September 2020
Alterations in the mismatch repair (MMR) system result in genomic instability, neoantigen production, and immune response in cancer. There is evidence that gastroesophageal tumors with MMR deficiency may be susceptible to immune-checkpoint inhibitors treatment, especially in those presenting at advanced-stage disease. Although a number of biomarkers have been developed in histology-agnostic settings to assess MMR status, there is evidence that a tumor-specific testing approach would improve the selection of patients for immunotherapy. However, no testing methods have been developed specifically for gastroesophageal cancers so far. Here, we discuss the state of the art, current advances, and future perspectives of MMR-related biomarkers’ biologic and clinical role in gastroesophageal cancers. View Full-Text
Keywords: mismatch repair; microsatellite instability; biomarkers; immunotherapy gastroesophageal cancer; gastric cancer mismatch repair; microsatellite instability; biomarkers; immunotherapy gastroesophageal cancer; gastric cancer
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Lopez, G.; Venetis, K.; Sajjadi, E.; Fusco, N. Mismatch Repair System Genomic Scars in Gastroesophageal Cancers: Biology and Clinical Testing. Gastrointest. Disord. 2020, 2, 341-352.

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