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Nightmares, Chronotype, Urbanicity, and Personality: An Online Study

1
Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim/Heidelberg University, 68159 Mannheim, Germany
2
Psychology Department, University of Freiburg, 79085 Freiburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Clocks & Sleep 2020, 2(3), 390-398; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep2030029
Received: 28 July 2020 / Revised: 18 September 2020 / Accepted: 20 September 2020 / Published: 22 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Clocks & Sleep and Disorders)
Chronotype refers to individual differences in sleep timing (“owls” and “larks”) and “eveningness” has been associated with nightmares. However, it has not been tested as to whether neuroticism mediates this relationship. Urbanicity refers to being raised in an urban region and/or currently living in an urban region and is associated with heightened risk for developing mental disorders, and thus might be related to nightmare frequency and nightmare distress. Overall, 2492 persons (1437 women, 1055 men) completed an online survey between 23 March 2015 and 8 April 2015. The mean age of the sample was 47.75 ± 14.41 years. The findings indicate that the previously reported relationship between chronotype and nightmare frequency was mediated by neuroticism and “morningness” was related to higher dream recall compared to persons with a late bedtime preference. Urbanicity was not related to nightmare frequency but to lower nightmare distress, raising the interesting question as to whether beliefs about nightmares might be an important variable that contributes to nightmare distress. Based on the few studies so far, there are still many unresolved questions about the interaction between nightmares, chronotype, and urbanicity. View Full-Text
Keywords: nightmares; nightmare distress; chronotype; urbanicity; personality nightmares; nightmare distress; chronotype; urbanicity; personality
MDPI and ACS Style

Schredl, M.; Göritz, A.S. Nightmares, Chronotype, Urbanicity, and Personality: An Online Study. Clocks & Sleep 2020, 2, 390-398. https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep2030029

AMA Style

Schredl M, Göritz AS. Nightmares, Chronotype, Urbanicity, and Personality: An Online Study. Clocks & Sleep. 2020; 2(3):390-398. https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep2030029

Chicago/Turabian Style

Schredl, Michael, and Anja S. Göritz 2020. "Nightmares, Chronotype, Urbanicity, and Personality: An Online Study" Clocks & Sleep 2, no. 3: 390-398. https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep2030029

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