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Effectiveness of Visual vs. Acoustic Closed-Loop Stimulation on EEG Power Density during NREM Sleep in Humans

1
Institute of Physiology and Basic Medicine, 630117 Novosibirsk, Russia
2
Department of Information Technologies, Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia
3
V. Zelman Institute for Medicine and Psychology, Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Clocks & Sleep 2020, 2(2), 172-181; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep2020014
Received: 17 March 2020 / Revised: 19 April 2020 / Accepted: 27 April 2020 / Published: 30 April 2020
The aim of the study was to investigate whether visual stimuli have the same potency to increase electroencephalography (EEG) delta wave power density during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep as do auditory stimuli that may be practical in the treatment of some sleep disturbances. Nine healthy subjects underwent two polysomnography sessions—adaptation and experimental—with EEG electrodes positioned at Fz–Cz. Individually adjusted auditory (pink noise) and visual (light-emitting diode (LED) red light) paired 50-ms signals were automatically presented via headphones/eye mask during NREM sleep, shortly (0.75–0.90 s) after the EEG wave descended below a preset amplitude threshold (closed-loop in-phase stimulation). The alternately repeated 30-s epochs with stimuli of a given modality (light, sound, or light and sound simultaneously) were preceded and followed by 30-s epochs without stimulation. The number of artifact-free 1.5-min cycles taken in the analysis was such that the cycles with stimuli of different modalities were matched by number of stimuli presented. Acoustic stimuli caused an increase (p < 0.01) of EEG power density in the frequency band 0.5–3.0 Hz (slow waves); the values reverted to baseline at post-stimuli epochs. Light stimuli did not influence EEG slow wave power density (p > 0.01) and did not add to the acoustic stimuli effects. Thus, dim red light presented in a closed-loop in-phase fashion did not influence EEG power density during nocturnal sleep. View Full-Text
Keywords: healthy subjects; NREM sleep; delta wave power density; acoustic stimulation; visual stimulation healthy subjects; NREM sleep; delta wave power density; acoustic stimulation; visual stimulation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Danilenko, K.V.; Kobelev, E.; Yarosh, S.V.; Khazankin, G.R.; Brack, I.V.; Miroshnikova, P.V.; Aftanas, L.I. Effectiveness of Visual vs. Acoustic Closed-Loop Stimulation on EEG Power Density during NREM Sleep in Humans. Clocks & Sleep 2020, 2, 172-181. https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep2020014

AMA Style

Danilenko KV, Kobelev E, Yarosh SV, Khazankin GR, Brack IV, Miroshnikova PV, Aftanas LI. Effectiveness of Visual vs. Acoustic Closed-Loop Stimulation on EEG Power Density during NREM Sleep in Humans. Clocks & Sleep. 2020; 2(2):172-181. https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep2020014

Chicago/Turabian Style

Danilenko, Konstantin V., Evgenii Kobelev, Sergei V. Yarosh, Grigorii R. Khazankin, Ivan V. Brack, Polina V. Miroshnikova, and Lyubomir I. Aftanas 2020. "Effectiveness of Visual vs. Acoustic Closed-Loop Stimulation on EEG Power Density during NREM Sleep in Humans" Clocks & Sleep 2, no. 2: 172-181. https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep2020014

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