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The Random Gas of Hard Spheres

Department of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, University of Illinois at Chicago, 851 S. Morgan st., Chicago, IL 60607, USA
J 2019, 2(2), 162-205; https://doi.org/10.3390/j2020014
Received: 19 April 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 28 May 2019 / Published: 31 May 2019
The inconsistency between the time-reversible Liouville equation and time-irreversible Boltzmann equation has been pointed out by Loschmidt. To avoid Loschmidt’s objection, here we propose a new dynamical system to model the motion of atoms of gas, with their interactions triggered by a random point process. Despite being random, this model can approximate the collision dynamics of rigid spheres via adjustable parameters. We compute the exact statistical steady state of the system, and determine the form of its marginal distributions for a large number of spheres. We find that the Kullback–Leibler entropy (a generalization of the conventional Boltzmann entropy) of the full system of random gas spheres is a non-increasing function of time. Unlike the conventional hard sphere model, the proposed random gas system results in a variant of the Enskog equation, which is known to be a more accurate model of dense gas than the Boltzmann equation. We examine the hydrodynamic limit of the derived Enskog equation for spheres of constant mass density, and find that the corresponding Enskog–Euler and Enskog–Navier–Stokes equations acquire additional effects in both the advective and viscous terms. View Full-Text
Keywords: hard sphere gas; Enskog equation; Boltzmann equation; Loschmidt’s paradox hard sphere gas; Enskog equation; Boltzmann equation; Loschmidt’s paradox
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Abramov, R.V. The Random Gas of Hard Spheres. J 2019, 2, 162-205.

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